Proceeding of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences Peer-reviewed journal "Proceeding of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences" published by Shevchenko Scientific Society en-US (Oksana Zayachkivska) (Pavlo Usenko) Mon, 23 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 THE SYNERGY OF THE WORLD AND UKRAINIAN EXPERIENCES <p>The COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant economic downturn has brought to the forefront the need for expeditious action to create answers for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this newest human malady. This crisis has crystalized the prioritization of expenditures of resources for medical research, clinical practice and public health measures in combating this deadly virus.<br>The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health Coronavirus Resource Center has counted a total of 46,168,459 cases and 1,196,891 deaths worldwide (November 1, 2020). The data for Ukraine is 407,573 cases and 7,515 deaths. It is now 10 months since the recognition of the worldwide involvement of the SARS-COV-2 virus as the etiologic agent of this pandemic. Although progress has been made, there is still a large gap in our efforts to find a cure and create an effective vaccine for the world population. A corollary lesson is the need for life-long learning and the acceptance of change in everyday practice.<br>Harvard and Ukrainian Catholic University Professor of business management Adrian Slywotzky develops a succinct idea in his book «David Conquers: The Discipline of Asymmetric Victory». He states that David’s sling is a modest investment that results in a giant return. Such is our modest investment in this<br>scholarly medical journal: Proceedings of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences. We rely heavily on the social media mechanism of «word-of mouth» to promote our journal and its offerings of current medical breakthroughs and findings. Our wide range of interest is underscored by the more than 101 countries from whence our readers query our online journal. This is our modest investment on behalf of our readers to gain current information, an example of our asymmetric battle with the giant coronavirus.</p> <p>In this issue (Vol. 59, No.2 [62]) we inaugurate a video supplement of the proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium “SMARTLION2020’ which took place as a virtual meeting on 29 September 2020. O Danyliak and I Stryjska have collated the sessions related to the coronavirus pandemic. [4]<br>The speakers include:<br>1. Boris Lushniak, Professor and Dean, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, USA: «A short history of pandemics».<br>2. Serhuy Souchelnytskyi, Professor at the College of Medicine, Quatar University, Doha, Quatar: «Why is COVID-19 so aggressive? Molecular insights with clinical application».<br>3. Andriy Cherkas, PhD candidate, Scientist, Sanofi, Frankfurt am Main, Germany: «COVID-19 and diabetes - a dangerous combination».<br>4. Armen Gasparyan, Associate Professor of Medicine, University of Birmingham, UK and Expert Reviewer of SCOPUS journals: «Infodemic and Misinformation in the COVID-19 era».<br>5. Oksana Souter, PhD, CEO of Swiss Organic Solutions, Zurich, Switzerland: “The systemic evaluations of proximity tracing app SwissCovid.”</p> <p>Next, S Souchelnytsky discusses the effectiveness of coronavirus testing that relies on the identification of the infrastructure of nucleic acids. This deepens our understanding of the importance of the procedure of detecting, amplifying and sequencing the coronavirus genome. [5]<br>Our knowledge of the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment regimens of the coronavirus is evolving and ever changing. Yesterday’s knowledge is superseded by today’s investigations and discoveries. In this light we present the latest case studies of the cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 by N Oryshchyn and Y Ivaniv [6].<br>M Cherkas et al discuss the critical care management of COVID-19 with emphasis on the MATH+algorithm [7].<br>PS Gaur et al inform us how to obtain valid information and recognize disinformation in medical research publications as a result of the adaptation of a changing paradigm in research [8].<br>The advice based on the thinking of Joseph Aoun, taken from his book «Robot-Proof: Higher Education in the Age of Artificia Intelligence» Here he proposes a strategy of how to prepare future scientists in the era of artificial intelligence [9]. In today’s medicine, smart machines and deep learning compete with the thinking of highly educated professionals. It is rare to see a modern era physician without instant access to the latest scientific research and sophisticated electronic devices that rely on algorithms of artificial intelligence to produce that information. Without such machine learning, we would not have the great advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular, hematologic, oncologic diseases, infertility and many other medical dilemmas. It is critically important to have timely publications that introduce these innovations in medicine to the practitioner. We therefore also present to you the latest information about cardiovascular treatments in Lviv by D Beshley et al [10], and introduce you to the use of robotics in gynecologic surgery by A. Brignoni and O. Mudra [11]. In this era of artificial intelligence and the knowledge that comes to us with lightening speed, we must expect that all research be conducted in an ethical manner. The window to this work is through publications. We summarize a series of webinars held this year by the editorial board of this journal that focused on academic integrity and its reflection through scholarly writing [12]. Their full video is presented too [13]. «The ethical code of researchers» is published as a guide for our scientists on conducting and reporting research in a transparent and ethical fashion [14].<br>The title page of this publication reflects its contents. The collage “Life, idea, innovation" embodies the interplay of past and present, of history and innovation. At the center, the image of the human heart symbolizes life and self-sacrifice - in all of its aspects. More than a century ago, man devoted himself to science, bequeathing his heart to teach the next generation . The heart pictured is a reflection of the mummified specimen of the human heart found in the Anatomical Museum of the Department of Normal Anatomy, Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University.<br>The history of the creation and development of this museum can be found in a recently published monograph reviewed in this issue by A. Pitukh-Novorolska[15]. The heart on the cover of this journal is the personification of a physician, who lives by the motto "Consumor aliis inserviendo" (Latin: "I am consumed by being nice to others”). How relevant especially now - during the COVID-19 pandemic - when loss of human life is so high. <br>In this crisis, ideas are generated. Many of them are veiled in histograms. They arise not from nothing, but from a scientific basis. It is the sacrifice of scientists that is their source. The latest book by S. Komisarenko reagarding important scientific achievements in biochemistry and immunology leading to the awarding of the Nobel Prize is herewith reviewed by S. Sushelnytsky [16]. Returning to the cover, the number of icons from the heart decreases the further ir goes : some are lost, others scatter and a few create innovation.<br>The final elements of the collage represent the contemporary world. Building on previous sacrifices, ideas and life, innovation is the future. The aortic valve prosthesis for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and the image of the coronary arteries as visualized by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) are among the most recent innovations in cardiology and cardiac surgery. <br>Therefore, they are located next to the heart. Depicting the triad “life, idea, innovation", we invite our readers to enjoy the articles presented in this issue: new ideas for significant innovations.<br>The Editorial Board extents their deep gratitude and thanks to the many colleagues responsible for the the support and advancement of our Journal [17].</p> <p>We look forward to new ideas and innovations in 2021!</p> Oksana Zayachkivska, Vassyl Lonchyna Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 APPRECIATION TO THE EDITORIAL BOARDS, PRODUCTION TEAMS, REVIEWERS AND AUTHORS FOR THE PROCEEDING OF THE SHEVCHENKO SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY. MEDICAL SCIENCES IN 2020 <p>We would like to thank our past and present editorial and production teams and our authors for cooperation in 2020. Despite of COVID-19 challenges in 2020, our journal has recently received acceptations to the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and in processing to Ulrichsweb &amp; Ulrichs Periodicals Directory. <em>The Proceedings of Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences</em> obtains manuscripts over the world [1-8]. The decision on their publications is based on potentially influential contents of interest to Ukrainian and other medical and healthcare professionals, scientists and medical students after successful critical peer review [9]. All of the editorial staff of <em>The Proceedings of Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences</em> sincerely appreciates the authors’ contributions. Among them, the best corresponding authors (based on download counts of their articles and positive social media attention) are Dr. Sandor Szabo (American University Health Science, CA, USA) and Dr. Natalia Matolinets (Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine).</p> <p>In 2020, <em>The Proceedings of Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences</em> has put all efforts to upgrade the Journal peer review standards, offering regular educational courses/webinars to advance their editorial credentials to better serve the professional interests of the Journal readers.</p> <p><em>The Proceedings of Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences</em> invited new editorial board members and experts for peer review of the manuscripts in 2020, and some of them received multiple invitations. We honestly appreciate the voluntary contribution of all of the members of the editorial team, executive, and editorial boards of PSSS MS and all reviewers as introduced below. Among reviewers, top peer reviewers (based on their contribution of 4 or more reviews) are Dr. Andriy Cherkas (Sanofi-Aventis-Deutschland GmbH – Industriepark Höchst, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), Dr. Nelia Oryshchyn (Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine), Dr. Vassyl Lonchyna (University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, United States).</p> Oksana Zayachkivska, Marta Kovalska Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 4TH SMART LION 2020 COVID-19: REALITY AND PROGNOSIS <p><a href=";">;</a></p> <p>This report with video supplement represents the 4<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM «SMARTLION 2020» DEDICATED TO COVID-19: REALITY AND PROGNOSIS. It was carried out as a virtual meeting on September 29, 2020. The event was supported by Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University (Lviv, Ukraine), Medical Commision of The Shevchenko Scientific Society, Lviv City Council and Lviv Convention Bureau.</p> <p>About 400 participants from Ukraine, Poland and Germany actively took part in the symposium asking questions and sharing the event in Facebook. Among honored speakers were opinion leaders in the fields of medical science related to COVID-19 pandemic.&nbsp; Professor Boris Lushniak (Dean of School of Public Health, University of Maryland, USA) focused on the history of Pandemics. Professor Serhiy Souchelnystyi (College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar) explained molecular insights with clinical applications as well as why COVID-19 is so aggressive. Doctor Andriy Cherkas (PhD, Sanofi, Frankfurt am Mein, Germany) discussed on dangerous combination – COVID-19 and Diabetes. Armen Yuri Gasparyan (MD, PhD, FESC, member of the World Association of Medical Editors, Associate Professor of Medicine of the University of Birmingham (UK)) talked about Infodemic and Misinformation in the COVID-19 era. Oksana Souter (PhD, CEO, Swiss organic solutions, Zürich, Switzerland) shared the experience of SwissCovidApp using in Switzerland and revealed social and ethical aspects of the COVID-19 digital environment. Professor Vasyl Lonchyna (University of Chicago, USA; UCU, Lviv, Ukraine) analysed medical education in the time of pandemic. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Professor Oksana Zayachkivska (Head of Physiology Department, Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University; Editor-in-Chief of the «Proceeding of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences») summarized the symposium hoping that human intelligence would overpower the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Oleh Danylyak, Iryna Stryiska Copyright (c) Thu, 15 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 ADVANCES IN SCIENCE EDITING AND COMMUNICATION <p><a href=""></a></p> <p>During 2020 a series of lectures and master classes, dedicated to scientific writing in journals indexed by international scientometric databases were held with the support of Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, the Shevchenko Scientific Society, the Western Scientific Centre of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, and the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic the events were held using Zoom platform. Also the participants had opportunity to view online broadcasts and recordings of the events at “Рroceedings of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences” journal Facebook page and Youtube channel (<a href=""></a>). Foreign colleagues-scientists from Great Britain and India, who are expert reviewers of Scopus and Web of science databases became the speakers of these webinars as well as Ukrainian colleagues-scientists. Scientific authors, graduate students, doctoral students, as well as editors of scientific journals of Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University and other medical universities of Ukraine were the target audience of these English-speaking events. Each registered participant received a certificate, providing a certain number of points of continuous professional development.</p> Ulyana Telishevska Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 APPLICATION OF NUCLEIC ACID AMPLIFICATION TESTS IN MANAGING COVID-19 PANDEMIC <p>Background. COVID-19 pandemic highlighted an importance of sensitive and specific tests that would be cost-efficient, fast and scalable. There are more than 200 COVID-19 detection tests available worldwide, with every country developing own assays. Sample collection, preparation for a test, tests itself and interpretation of results have a strong impact on the clinical value of the testing. Diversity of tests and workflows requires an analysis of their performance in clinics.</p> <p>Methods. Literature review, analysis of clinical reports, online resources, public and commercial reports were used to collect information about the tests. Collected information was processed for extraction of relevant to this review information.</p> <p>Results. Here we review COVID-19 detection tests that are based on amplification of nucleic acids. The tests employ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Clinical value of the tests depends on used technologies that differ for LAMP, real-time and standard PCR methods. Diversity of sample preparation protocols, different designs of the tests, used chemistries and protocols have significant impact on performance of the tests. Tailoring of a testing workflow to available infrastructure and selection of the most efficient combination of tests and protocols for each step in a testing workflow is crucial for the success.</p> <p>Conclusion. Reviewed here strong and weak sides of different tests and protocols can be of help in selection of a testing workflow for achieving maximal clinical utility.</p> Serhiy Souchelnytskyi, Nazariy Souchelnytskyi Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 CHANGING RESEARCH PARADIGM IN THE FACE OF A GLOBAL PANDEMIC: FORESEEABLE IMPACT AND ADAPTIVE MEASURES IN ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN THE FUTURE <p>The Coronavirus disease 2 (Covid-19) pandemic has led to a massive rise in research in a bid to understand more about the new disease and cope better with the pandemic.&nbsp; The need to socially distance and limited human movement in open spaces since the COVID-19 outbreak have brought most forms of research to a standstill. While most research incentives have been directed towards research regarding the pandemic, diminished patient visits, have paralysed all the studies requiring personal and physical examination. Majority of the social interactions have been reduced to a screen, and this is also the new practice in the research realm.</p> <p>This unique situation calls for a need to re-examine research practices and reinvent novel methods for quality research. While it is prudent to step up research to understand the disease and its impact on varied conditions, the situation also necessitates a close watch for misinformation, erroneous reporting, and failure of ethical research.&nbsp; Moreover, there is a felt need to derive validated tools for remote assessment to minimise risk to the patients and physicians alike.</p> <p>In this brief, we discuss the perceived changes and potential areas for erroneous research reporting while providing possible solutions for fruitful research in the peri-pandemic period. We also identify new methods of conducting studies and the setbacks that could be faced while carrying out such tasks, including those of methodological, ethical and financial nature. We hope these may shape researcher perspectives and help them to conduct ethical and valid research in these, particularly trying times.</p> Prithvi Sanjeevkumar Gaur, Latika Gupta Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ANGIOARCHITECTONICS OF THE NORMAL UTERINE TUBE MUCOUS MEMBRANE AND UNDER THE EFFECT OF OPIOID DURING THE EXPERIMENT <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>In the modern world, the problem of drug use, especially among the youth, is considered to be of utmost importance. Female body’s susceptibility to the development of drug addiction is considerably higher than that of the male body. The study of blood supply of the uterine tube is relevant since the morphological rebuilding of the mucous membrane of the uterine tube, considering its functions, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases of the female reproductive system. Under the effect of pathological factors, including opioids, vessels became the main target, and their structural changes are the basis for the development of the pathological process and determine the peculiarities of clinical symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>The study was carried out on 34 sexually mature white female rats (4,5-6,0 months) with the bodyweight of 180-220 g. Angioarchitectonics of the uterine tube of female white rats was studied in double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies with distribution into a control group (intact rats that were accepted as a relative norm, n=10), a placebo-controlled group (n=9) that received 0.9% saline for the duration of the experiment, and 3 experimental groups (n=5 each) that were subjected to long-term opioid effect.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results. </strong>After 2 weeks of Nalbuphine administration for female white laboratory rat, the minor expansion of arterioles and capillaries was observed, their diameter increased. Arteriolovenular coefficient augmented. After 4 weeks of Nalbuphine administration, arterioles were convoluted, loss of clear outlines, expansion of lumen, irregularity of vessels caliber, microvessels with microaneurysms, areas with hemorrhage and obliteration of capillaries were detected. After six-week administration of nalbuphine, the hemomicrocirculatory blood flow of the uterine tube wall was at the stage of decompensation, the capillary component was almost destroyed, arterioles were abruptly twisted and distorted, their lumen was uneven, venules were expanded and distorted, additional arteriolovenular anastomoses were opened, indices of trophic activity of the tissue increased considerably.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>The vasotropic effect after six-week administration of nalbuphine demonstrated severe damage to the uterine tube hemomicrocirculatory blood flow.&nbsp;</p> Mariia Podolyuk, Iryna Vilkhova, Lesya Mateshuk-Vatseba Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 DYNAMICS OF PROSTATE CANCER RATE AND MORTALITY IN UKRAINE: CURRENT STATE OF AFFAIRS <p><strong>Introduction. </strong>Prostate cancer (PC) accounts for about 12% of all malignancies in men. Over the last 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of this tumor, as evidenced by statistics.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>. The purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamics of PC morbidity and mortality rate in Ukraine and its regions in recent years.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods. </strong>The analysis of PC morbidity and mortality rates in Ukraine was performed in accordance with the 1999-2012 Bulletin of the National Cancer Registry of Ukraine. The following indicators were analyzed: raw (average) morbidity and mortality indicators standardized by age, world standard population that is widely used for indicator comparison across countries, Ukrainian standard population calculated based on the age structure of the Ukrainian population.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The 1999-2018 analysis of the dynamics of prostate cancer incidence showed its growth both in Ukraine in general and in each region separately. In 1999, the incidence rate (world standard) for prostate cancer in Ukraine was 9.3 and in 2018 it was 22.1. The 1999-2018 analysis of the dynamics of mortality rate due to prostate cancer showed a clear trend towards its growth in Ukraine in general and in each region separately. In 1999, the mortality rate (world standard) due to prostate cancer in Ukraine was 2.7 and in 2018 it was already 4.1. <strong>Conclusions</strong>. The study showed a clear incremental tendency towards increased morbidity and mortality in patients with PC in Ukraine and its regions in the period from 1999 to 2012. Herewith, some gender differences were observed - both figures were significantly higher among male patients than female. Continuous increment growth of morbidity and mortality rate in patients with PC requires the revision of protocols for diagnostics and treatment of such patients.</p> Yurii Kobilnyk, Yulian Mytsyk, Andriy Borzhievsky, Dmytro Vorobets, Viktoriia Matskevych Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN COVID-19: CASE REPORT AND CONCISE REVIEW <p>Cardiovascular system is one of the most vulnerable during COVID-19. The main mechanisms of cardiac injury are: direct myocardial damage, mediated by viral binding to angiotensin-converting-ensyme-2, cardiac microvascular damage and thrombosis, caused by hypercoagulability.</p> <p>Cardiovascular complications such as acute and chronic myocardial injury, myocarditis, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, stress-cardiomyopathy, arterial and venous thrombosis and arrhythmic disorders are common among COVID-19 patients. Myocardial injury in COVID-19 could have different mechanisms and may occur at early and late stages of the COVID-19 disease, resulting in myocardial dysfunction and heart failure.&nbsp; Echocardiography is a first-line noninvasive imaging method to assess the cardiac injury during COVID 19 while cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is the best to identify myocardial oedema, inflammation and fibrosis. In this article we presented the analysis of experience of cardiologists in different countries concerning diagnostics ant treatment of COVID-19 related cardiovascular pathology and case reports from our own experience concerning cardiovascular complications of COVID-19. Laboratory diagnostics (troponin and brain-natriuretic peptide) and noninvasive imaging methods (echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance tomography) are essential to confirm the diagnosis of cardiac injury in COVID-19 and to evaluate the effect of the treatment. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to understand better the COVID-19 related cardiac pathology.</p> Nelya Oryshchyn, Yuriy Ivaniv Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 PROFESSOR YURIY HAVRYLYUK: MILESTONES IN LIFE AND CREATIVE DESTINY <p>It would have been Yuriy Havrylyuk’s 60th birthday recently. He lived a short but full life and became a true example of a patriot who represented the Ukrainian medical and scientific community with dignity by his deeds, rather than words. Yuriy Havrylyuk was born on June 1, 1960 in Lviv. He graduated from the Secondary School with a gold medal. During 1977-1983, he studied at the Pediatric Faculty of Lviv State Medical Institute which he graduated with honors. During 1983-1986, Yuriy studied at the Institute of Medical Genetics in Moscow. In 1986, he defended his thesis «Medical and genetic counseling in case of mutagenic effects». Then, he worked at Lviv Research Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology (now the Institute of Hereditary Pathology) where he was employed as a geneticist at the Medical Genetics Center. In 1996, he defended his doctoral thesis «Genetic monitoring of the population in Ukrainian regions in the context of environmental pollution». In addition to science, Yuriy Havrylyuk took a very active part in public life: he was a member of the Presidium of the Ukrainian Scientific Society of Medical Geneticists, a member of the Ukrainian M. Vavilov Scientific Society of Geneticists and Breeders, Chairman of the Human Genetics Section of Lviv branch of the above society and the Ukrainian Medical Society, member of Taras Shevchenko Scientific Society.</p> Valentyna Chopyak, Halyna Chaikovska Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 THE FIRMAMENT OF NEUROSCIENCE LOSES A SHINING STAR (in memoriam Oleh Hornykiewicz) <p>Oleh Hornykiewicz, one of the most accomplished neuropharmacologists of the 20th century passed away on May 26, 2020 at the age of 93. In 1939, Oleh’s father, a Ukrainian Catholic priest, fled with his young family from Soviet-occupied Ukraine and settled in Vienna. During his medical studies, Oleh became fascinated by pharmacology and in 1956 was awarded a fellowship to Oxford University (U.K.) where he worked with Dr.&nbsp; Hermann Blaschko, a pioneer in the study of enzymes of catecholamine synthesis and metabolism. At that time, it was still thought that dopamine was merely an intermediate in the synthesis of norepinephrine.<br>&nbsp;<br>Dr. Hornykiewicz demonstrated that even after its breakdown had been blocked, administration of dopamine or its precursor L-DOPA could elevate blood pressure in animal models. Dopamine was bioactive per se. Upon his return to Vienna in 1958, the young scientist began studying dopamine in the brain. Familiar with Parkinson’s Disease and intrigued by Arvid Carlsson’s finding that L-DOPA could counteract the akinesia of the reserpenized rat, Dr. Hornyckiewicz began to suspect that a dopamine deficiency mediated the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.&nbsp; He developed new techniques, applied these to the study of postmortem brains, and demonstrated that Parkinson’s disease was associated with a dopamine deficiency in the basal ganglia. Shortly afterwards, he and Walter Birkmeyer observed how the intravenous administration of L-DOPA could awaken mute and akinetic patients with Parkinson’s disease. For the first time, a discreet chemical was both implicated in a complex brain disorder and could be used as a treatment.&nbsp; This stands as one of the seminal discoveries in neuropharmacology. To this day, L-DOPA remains a mainstay in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.<br><br>Over the following half-century Dr. Hornykiewicz continued his own work, generously mentored others and established brain banks in Vienna as well as in Toronto, Canada where he worked for many years. He received numerous awards, and was nominated for but not awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine, in a decision that has remained controversial.&nbsp; He will remain forever, a brilliant star in the history of neuropharmacology.</p> George Jaskiw Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 CRITICAL CARE COVID-19 MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL: CLINICAL CASE <p>One of the principal precepts of bioethics that all students in healthcare are taught in school which is a fundamental principle throughout of medicine, is referred as the&nbsp;Latin&nbsp;phrase “primum&nbsp;non&nbsp;nocere”. This means that,&nbsp;in regard to&nbsp;therapeutic&nbsp;strategies, it is first of all&nbsp;necessary not to harm the patient and for this reason, among the possible treatments, the one that has fewer contraindications should always be privileged.<br>The current&nbsp;COVID-19&nbsp;pandemic today counts more than 46 million cases and more than 1 million deaths worldwide.<br>While the vast majority of the scientific community is working tirelessly on the development of vaccines and control of the application of the results produced by the use of drugs in hospitalized patients, few studies have dealt with issues related to the concepts of prophylaxis and treatment of the early phase of the disease.<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Prophylaxis includes strategies capable, on the one hand, of containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2, on the other hand, mitigating the development of the immune system imbalance caused in severe forms of Coronavirus disease. That is why we present the MATH + clinical guidelines, which were created thanks to an international alliance of doctors from around the world and a description of the clinical case when the MATH + clinical guidelines were used.<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Medicine is a direction of human activity, which in its charity knows no boundaries, age restrictions, emotions and prohibitions. The doctor everywhere rushes to the rescue neglecting personal. That is why we strive to help all health workers, who are at the Front Line in the fight for the lives of COVID-19 critical patients.<br><br></p> Maryana Cherkes, Puya Dehgani-Mobaraki, Yuriy Gret Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 POSTGRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION IN UKRAINE <p>Discussion of observations and interviews as to the state of postgraduate medical education in Ukraine during an informal discussion of author’s time as a U.S. Fulbright Scholar for the 2018-2019 academic years for the project titled&nbsp;Postgraduate Medical Education In Ukraine. The&nbsp;interviews with interns (85); attendings, program directors, hospital administrators (75),&nbsp;several medical students and others were recorded during&nbsp;numerous&nbsp;author’s&nbsp;visits and observations (50) to various&nbsp;Ukrainian hospitals.</p> <p>The conclusions made herein are my own and serve to report my observations on the state and quality of postgraduate medical training in Ukraine, reference to that in the United States and the author’s over 45-year practice as a surgeon in Illinois.</p> <p>This mainly concerns internships in the surgical specialties and subspecialties. Some suggestions as to how to change the system are presented.</p> George Kuzycz Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 IMPLEMENTATION OF GYN ROBOTIC SURGERY IN OUR PRACTICE <p>Middle East has launched its first comprehensive robotic surgery programme, Known as one of the most sophisticated laparoscopic surgical technologies available, the device – created by Intuitive – is part of the new programme aimed at enhancing the group’s “current comprehensive general surgery and laparoscopic surgery services”.</p> <p>American Hospital was selected as the hub for this robotic programme as it is already considered a market leader in advanced laparoscopic surgery.</p> <p>According to the manufacturer, the da Vinci Xi HD 4 works by combining conventional laparoscopic techniques with high precision robotic technology that uses four robotic arms controlled by the surgeon from a console. Through the console, the surgeon is also able to access a 3D high-definition view of the surgical area.</p> <p>Robotic surgery is a state of the art surgical procedure in which the conventional laparoscopic technique is combined with high precision robotic technology. Articulated instruments allow the same movement capacity as the human wrist and the tremor filter eliminates any small uncontrollable movement in the surgeon's hands.</p> <p>We would like to share our experience in implementation of Robotic Assisted surgery in gynecological practice of out hospital.</p> <p>Commencement of our program coincided with very difficult period for all World. Regardless COVID pandemic, we started successfully our robo- surgical journey, and within 6 months we performed 150 Robotic assisted surgeries, 50 of them- gynecological.</p> <p>Gynecologic surgery has been transformed in the last three decades in the western world, from mostly open abdominal surgeries with increased length of stay and morbidity to today with minimally invasive surgeries with short length of stay, decreased morbidity, faster return to normal activities and work. Long past the days of doing laparoscopic surgery with direct viewing through a scope, later poor quality imaging monitors to our current High definition 2D and 3D imaging. In the last decade the introduction of Robotics to our surgical armamentarium has steadily increase the likelihood that patients will have minimally invasive procedure instead of an open laparotomy.</p> Antony Brignoni, Oksana Mudra Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 INNOVATIVE CARDIOLOGY AND CARDIAC SURGERY IN LVIV <p>In modern medical care, there is an urgent need for the use of innovative technological medicine that&nbsp; expends the horizon for cardiovascular treatment. The introduction of innovations requires successful solutions and should be based on the experience of classical treatment of heart and vessels pathologies. For the development of interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery in Lviv, doctors of the cardiac surgery department of the Lviv Regional Clinical Hospital initiated the involvement of Polish colleagues to found a joint Ukraine-Polish heart center "Lviv" on the basis of the Lviv Regional Clinical Hospital.</p> <p>The purpose of the article is to inform the medical community about the availability of modern methods of diagnosis and treatment of heart and blood vessel diseases in Lviv and Western Ukraine.</p> <p>New diagnostic methods are being introduced that optimize the results of coronary endovascular revascularization. In particular, assessment of coronary physiology - instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to determine the morphology of the affected coronary vessels. The wider use of endoprostheses for the descending thoracic aorta (EVAR) makes it possible to adequately stent the hard-to-reach segment of the aorta in its aneurysms or stratification, as well as to avoid complex traumatic open surgeries. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was performed at this medical center on October 12, 2020 for the first time in Lviv and Western Ukraine.</p> Dmytro Beshley, Dariusz Dudek, Roman Wojdyla, Uliana Pidvalna, Vitaliy Averchuk, Lyubomyr Kulyk Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 ACTA NON VERBA (ON THE OCCASION OF THE ANNIVERSARY OF PROF. OKSANA ZAYACHKIVSKA) <p>Oksana Stanislavivna Zayachkivska (born on July 24, 1960, Lviv) – Doctor of Medicine, Professor (2008), Head of the Department of Normal Physiology (2016) at Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University. She is a full member of Shevchenko Scientific Society (SSS) (2018), chairman of the Medical Commission of SSS (2015-2018), Member of the Physiological Society (UK), Global GI Club in FASEB, International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR-GI section), Honorary Ambassador of Lviv (2019–21). Her ​​research is mainly focused on the problems of the physiology of digestion, stress and the creation of preclinical models of gastrointestinal diseases. Professor studies new stress biomarkers, anti-stress agents and the formation of stress resistance; elucidates molecular mechanisms of cytoprotection. Oksana Zayachkivska is the author and co-author of over 300 scientific original works and translations of the English-language professional literature. She is the member of the Editorial Board and Editor-in-Chief of the “Proceedings of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences” journal (2015–2020), member of the Editorial boards of “Frontier in Pharmacology” (Switzerland), “Southeast European Medical Journal” (Croatia), “Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology” (USA).</p> Uliana Pidvalna Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 THE ANATOMICAL MUSEUM OF DANYLO HALYTSKY LVIV NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY. BORYS ZIMENKOVSKY, LESYA MATESHUK-VATSEBA, ULIANA PIDVALNA, BOHDAN KORDYS, MEDYCYNA SVITU, 2020, 136 PP., ILLUS. <p>The book-album "The Anatomical Museum of Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University", depicting a museum in Lviv, is telling a story about one of the few unique museums in Europe dedicated to the anatomy of animals and humans. The so-called peculiarities observed in the human and animal world were displayed there and shown in private only. Then the collections were structured and displayed in dedicated university buildings with the educational purpose for medical students. Besides that, they are often unique collections showing not only parts of the skeleton and internal human organs but rare biological animalities as well. The exhibited items showing soft tissues and vessels are prepared with special techniques and special solvents preserving them.</p> <p>"The Anatomical Museum" is compiled in a classical form starting with the history of the building, following by the history of the collection and finally the exhibition itself. The museum is a part of the building were medical students have been educated in the basic knowledge of a human anatomy from an embryo to a senior age. The specimens collected in the museum exhibit not only the human anatomy but also animal skeletons showing evolutionary development, similarities and differences for comparative anatomy. The museum in Lviv is part of the network of similar museums and is based on an older museum organised in Kraków in Jagiellonian University’s Department of Anatomy.</p> <p>What draws attention in the album is not only a consistent and logical development of the topics but also great photographs of specimens in glass cabinets. By the way, there are rooms in the museum displaying the portraits of scientists' predecessors, professors and people distinguished for the history of this institution.</p> <p>The album is also worth attention since the authors &nbsp;have made efforts to translate the text not only into English but into German and Polish as well. It is a tribute to the memory of the Polish chapter in the history of Lviv, including the Department of Anatomy, which was part of the Faculty of Medicine at Jan Casimir University. Now it is known as Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University and it preserves and maintains the best university traditions of educating future doctors. In my opinion, the album "The Anatomical Museum of Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University" is worth investigating and reading about its interesting history, although there is little information about the methods of tissue preservation and bone cleansing there.</p> <p>If someone is interested in anatomy, tissue and bone preparation this is the book deserving attention.</p> Anna Pituch-Noworolska Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 CLINICAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY <p>In the recent decades echocardiography has grown to the most widely used cardiac diagnostic tool for both cardiac and non-cardiac clinicians. It allows for comprehensive assessment of a heart, including either cardiac or valvular function as well as morphologic evaluation.</p> <p>This book, written by the distinguish authorities in the field of echocardiography, provides an up-to-date resource of knowledge about methodology and interpretation of echocardiograms. Prof. Yuriy Ivaniv and prof. Nelya Oryshchyn from the Lviv National Medical University in a clear narration described the theoretical principles of echocardiography sharing their long-term clinical experience.</p> <p>Topics in this book include the essential elements of ultrasound physics, cardiac sonographic anatomy and the acquisition techniques of the main echocardiographic views. The book describes the utility of echocardiography in almost all cardiac diseases with a practical, problem-based approach. It discusses all echocardiographic techniques, including transesophageal and 3D echocardiography as well as tissue doppler imaging and speckle-tracking echocardiography. The textbook presents a concise summary of techniques, diagnostic criteria, nomenclature and classification of diseases by means of echocardiography. It is illustrated with pictures covering the wide range of cardiac conditions, including acute medicine, in which echocardiography plays a pivotal role. The book also includes short tests for self-checking.</p> <p>This book is especially useful for cardiologists and residents who want to understand the best way to make sense of the echo examination.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Assoc. Prof. Wiktoria Wojciechowska MD, PhD</p> <p>Senior Cardiac Physiologist</p> <p>First Department of Cardiology, Interventional Electrocardiology</p> <p>and Arterial Hypertension</p> <p>Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland</p> Wiktoria Wojciechowska Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 HANDBOOK OF COVID-19 PREVENTION AND TREATMENT <p>Пандемія коронавірусу набула загрозливих масштабів. &nbsp;Україна, на жаль, є одним з антилідерів серед країн Європи за кількістю хворих. Це близько 50 тисяч інфікованих осіб, з яких майже 1300 померли.</p> <p>Визріла необхідність у розумінні особливостей профілактики та контролю захворюваності широким загалом лікарів. Саме цьому присвячено рецензований посібник.</p> <p>Його оперативно підготувала&nbsp;українська команда перекладачів-волонтерів – відомих фахівців у різних медичних спеціальностях. &nbsp;Посібник доступний на онлайн-ресурсі <a href=""></a>. Також опубліковано онлайн інший переклад під назвою «Посібник з попередження та лікування COVID-19», який доступний на ресурсі <a href=""></a>. Рецензоване видання ініційоване МОЗ України, більше за обсягом (70 сторінок порівняно з 58), укладене на базі клінічного досвіду провідних світових установ: The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Китай); Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford, UK; King’s College Hospital, London, UK; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard; Medical School, Boston, USA; SickKids Hospital, Toronto, Canada, та доповнене рекомендаціями Всесвітньої організації охорони здоров’я.</p> Natalia Matolinetc Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 UNDER THE NOBEL SIGN: LEADERS OF THE SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS OR THE REFLECTIONS OF A BIOCHEMIST AND IMMUNOLOGIST ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPORTANCE OF LIFE SCIENCES Editor-in-Chief Acad., NAS of Ukraine, S.V. Komisarenko. Compiled by V. M. Danylova. – Kyiv: In <p>It took me just one day to read all 240 pages of this book. It is about science, yet it reads like a novella you have to finish right away without putting it down even for once.</p> <p>This book provides a unique insight into how science works, what drives research, how science makes human life better, and what challenges arise. By taking the Nobel Prize as an example, the author chose an excellent approach.</p> <p>The Nobel Prize is one of the most prestigious rewards for scientific achievements. However, it has limitations and controversies. After all, the Nobel Prize is given by people to people.</p> <p>This book contains an interesting story of how the Nobel Prize was born. A compelling chapter about Alfred Nobel shows a glimpse into his way of thinking and reasons behind establishing this award. And these reasons are all of human nature, with all good and less good aspects of a human being.</p> <p>Chapters focusing on the analysis of biomedical awards are very professional. Hardcore scientific data and experiments are interweaved with a description of human factors. A historical background, ways of research organization, and interactions with the academic and general society are well described.</p> <p>I found the last chapter of the book on the analysis of scientific ethics very engaging. This chapter is much more than just a status-quo description! It is an extensive professional analysis of science development, broken down to key issues faced by science today. Evaluation of research, criteria, and values for society, research management – all these components are still relevant today. They are based on the analysis of the history of science and are paving the way for science development tomorrow. Examples of science development in Ukraine, with real-life examples, are up to the point.</p> <p>This book will be of interest to many readers. Readers interested in gaining general knowledge and society will find reader-friendly information on the role of science in society and the way it is shaped. Those who take interest in biomedical science will find engaging data on key discoveries. These chapters will show the human and social impact on the Nobel Prize-awarded discoveries. Readers who like discovering facts about world research in general and Ukrainian studies in particular, will find a razor-sharp analysis of how society has affected, affects, and may affect science. This is especially timely when the Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences is undergoing the post-Paton era. Great achievements of the past have to be preserved, and the national research has to adapt to the changing world. Without science, there is no development in society.</p> <p>Start this book, and you will read it to the last page. Enjoy!</p> Serhiy Sushelnytskyi Copyright (c) Sun, 27 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 PHYSIOLOGY OF DIGESTION. HANDBOOK FOR PRACTICAL CLASSES AND SELF-WORK FOR MASTER’S STUDENTS OF THE MEDICAL FACULTY/ EDITED BY O.S. ZAYACHKIVSKA. DANYLO HALYTSKY LVIV NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, LVIV, 2020. -102 P. <p>"The severity of the disease is proportional</p> <p>to their deviation from the state of health, and the extent</p> <p>this deviation can only be assessed by the person</p> <p>who is completely familiar with the healthy."</p> <p>Galen of Pergamon (129 - 200 AD), the personal physician of the Roman</p> <p>Emperor Marc Aurel wrote this sentence in his book <em>"De Methodo Medendi"</em> <em>(“About the healing arts"</em>). This sentence is as correct today as more than 1800 years ago. He, therefore, served me many times in the annual Introductory lectures on the physiology of man than the same short as well as unmistakable request and reason to the Medical students, first of all, get along with the normal in the best possible way and make yourself familiar with body functions and only then deal with their changes in diseases. Physiology is one of the central subjects in the preclinical section of medical studies. Their subject matter is the functioning and regulating mechanisms of our body that keep us alive. This knowledge is of great importance for you as a budding doctor, because if you have mastered the basics of physiology, the pathophysiological processes in the development of the disease will be easier to understand. You can also better derive the effects of drugs that intervene in physiological processes.</p> <p>All this can be easily found in the “Physiology of digestive system / Handbook for practical classes for students of the medical faculty. edited by O.S. Zayachkivska from Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University. Besides, the small print contains in-depth content and references to other subjects. The authors of this textbook are all actively involved in teaching and physiological research and have incorporated their daily experiences in the hope that future readers will benefit from their enthusiasm for physiology, for the adventure of learning to understand the body, getting "infected" and having fun reading, thinking and understanding. Learning physiology means mainly the acquisition of skills and abilities to deal with facts. Students have to learn "physiological" thinking to be able to understand the body functions. Medicine and thus medical studies are particularly in the field of tension between scientific and practical relevance since medicine is and must remain science, but students and medical professionals related to this, recognize, understand, and accept scientific relevance to practical work. The bridging required here is becoming increasingly important in medical studies. Physiology is particularly suitable for this bridging function in modern medicine.</p> Jan Konturek Copyright (c) Mon, 23 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0200 THE ETHICAL CODE OF RESEARCHERS <p>Everyone, who enlists under the banner of<br>Science must renounce everything that could<br>drive him back from the way which this banner indicated.<br><strong>Kazimierz Twardowski</strong></p> Oleksandr Kitsera Copyright (c) Mon, 23 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0200