Proceeding of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences Peer-reviewed journal "Proceeding of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences" published by Shevchenko Scientific Society en-US (Editorial Board) (Pavlo Usenko) Tue, 29 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 OPPORTUNITIES FOR SCIENCE GROWTH AMIDST THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC <p>Dear reader,</p> <p>The 21st year of the 21st century will go down in history as the boundary that divided the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and post-pandemic world. It is the efforts of medical academic institutions and the dedicated medical professionals all around the world that have demonstrated a high readiness to overcome the modern challenges of the pandemic that has engulfed all the humanity. The world has received a new vector in the development of science to understand the strategy to combat the "plague" of the 21st century.&nbsp; First, it is the creation of specific prevention of COVID-19 at a record pace: on January 10, 2020, the information on the sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 virus (also known as 2019-nCoV) was received, and on December 11, 2020, vaccination against COVID-19 started among healthcare professionals in the United States.&nbsp; Currently, more than 2 billion people worldwide have been vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 [1].&nbsp; No deaths have been reported in the UK for 25 days (as of June 3, 2021), nevertheless changes in the SARS-CoV-2 genome and the emergence of new virus strains continue, and reports from high-incidence regions such as India are still alarming.&nbsp; The pandemic of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which as of today has infected more than 171 million and killed more than 3.5 million people globally, has been a major test for newer vaccines that differ from the previous ones. The organization and conduct of clinical research are becoming more important than ever. The article by Andriy Cherkas is dedicated to this topic [2]. Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca and Johnson-Johnson vaccines developed and tested in clinical trials were made possible following the results of fundamental research by Katalin Karikó and Drew Weisman, which began almost 30 years ago [2] and ushered in the fifth era of vaccination [3, 4].</p> Oksana Zayachkivska, Orest Chevtchik Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 RESEARCH INVOLVING HUMAN SUBJECTS IN UKRAINE: HOW TO LEVERAGE ARISING OPPORTUNITIES? <p>The review of the applications for grants of the National Research Foundation of Ukraine revealed evidence that many applicants-clinicians are not aware of the principles of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) that are implemented in different forms in the vast majority of research involving human subjects across the globe. In the essay, based on the experience of researching at Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University (Ukraine), Loma Linda University (USA), Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Germany), as well as industry (Sanofi-Aventis-Deutschland GmbH., Frankfurt am Main, Germany), the author shares his thoughts about the gaps in education, training, regulations and administrative flaws that prevent more rapid progress in clinical research in Ukraine. Despite the complexity of the problem, implementation of relatively simple steps at institutional and/or national levels, as suggested, can boost the efficiency of research, increase the quality of applications and move clinical research in Ukraine to a qualitatively different level</p> Andriy Cherkas Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0300 ADVANCES IN SCIENCE EDITING AND COMMUNICATION <p>During the first half of 2021 6 more webinars took place online, as a continuation of a series of lectures and workshops for scientists on writing quality of scientific articles, These events were held with the support of Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, the Shevchenko Scientific Society, the Western Scientific Centre of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine and the Council of Scientific Editors of Ukraine.</p> <p>The participants had opportunity to view online broadcasts and recordings of the events at “Рroceedings of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences” journal Facebook page and Youtube channel (<a href=""></a>). Each registered participant received a certificate with certain number of points of continuous professional development.</p> <p>Traditionally, webinars were held in English, among the invited speakers were Ukrainian and foreign fellow scientists from Great Britain, Croatia, USA, Iran and India</p> Ulyana Telishevska Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 VACCINATION AND ESPECIALLY DANGEROUS INFECTIONS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROSPECTS <div><strong>Introduction</strong>. Infectious diseases have been a threat during all periods of human existence. Primary measures to protect against extremely dangerous pathogens included quarantine, observation and vaccination. Vaccination was crucial in the fight against smallpox — the only disease, which was eradicated on a global scale.</div> <div> <div><strong>The aim</strong> of the work was to identify the main stages of development and application of vaccines for the protection against especially dangerous infection (EDI) and the contribution of Ukrainian scientists in the development of vaccines for EDI.</div> <div> <div><strong>Methods.</strong> An analysis using the Search Strategy of narrative reviews of literary sources and Internet resource was conducted to systematize data about the application of immunobiological preparations to create an active immunity against several actual EDI. The participation of scientists with Ukrainian roots in the creation of vaccines against this group of diseases is indicated.</div> <div> <div><strong>Results.</strong> Smallpox (variolation in China in the 11th century) is known as the first disease against which specifc protection was created. Until the 20s century, the first five vaccines against EDI were developed: smallpox, rabies, anthrax, cholera, and plague. In the 20s century, the list was supplemented by vaccines against typhus, yellow fever, tick-borne encephalitis,тtularemia, brucellosis, coxiellosis (Q-fever), hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The introduction of new technologies in the 21st century allowed improving existing preparations and creating new ones against Ebola viral disease (EVD), COVID-19 as EDIs relevant ones for the pandemic potential.</div> <div> <div>Outstanding scientists with Ukrainian roots contributed to the creation of vaccines against EDI: V. Khavkin, D. Samoilovich, V. Zhdanov.</div> <div> <div><strong>Conclusion</strong>. Protection of the population against EDIs is limited by the number of available effective vaccines. The development of vaccines against COVID-19 has improved the prognosis for containment of the COVID-19 pandemic.</div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Nataliya Vynograd, Zoriana Vasylyshyn, Lyudmyla Kozak, Uliana Shul, Iryna Baydalka Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0300 SPIKE PROTEIN AND ITS PROTEASES ROLE IN SARS-COV-2 PATHOGENICITY AND TREATMENT; A REVIEW <p>Since December 2019, a novel beta coronavirus has spread around the world. This virus can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In this study, we reviewed proteases of SARS-CoV-2 based on related articles published in journals indexed by Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar from December 2019 to April 2020.&nbsp; Based on this study, we can claim that this coronavirus has about 76% genotype similarity to SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Also, similarities between these two viruses have been found in the mechanism of entry into host cells and pathogenicity. ACE 2, the angiotensin convertase enzyme 2, plays a role in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAAS) and blood pressure regulation. Some mechanisms have been reported for the role of ACE 2 in the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.&nbsp; For example, the interaction between the ACE 2 receptor and spike protein mediated by TMPRSS2, Cathepsin B/L, and other enzymes is responsible for the entry of the virus into human cells and pathogenicity. Some host cell endosomal enzymes are necessary to cleavage coronavirus spike protein and cause binding to their common receptor. So, we conclude that molecules like antibodies or small molecules like ACE 2 antagonists and soluble ACE 2 can be used as a good therapeutic candidate to prevent SARS-CoV-2.</p> Fateme Tavakoli Far, Ehsan Amiri-Ardekani Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0300 PECULIARITIES OF THE CLINICAL COURSE OF POSTMEASLES ENCEPHALITIS IN IMMUNOSUPRESSED PEOPLE <p>Primary acute measles encephalitis and acute postmeasles encephalitis are the most common neurological complications of measles. It is important to detect encephalitis, which develops a month or more after the manifestations of measles infection. These encephalitis are rare and occur mainly in people with immunodefi ciency. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the central nervous system for the treatment of which diseasemodifying therapy is used, namely monoclonal antibodies, that can lead to immunosuppression and immunodefi ciency. Nowadays, there is insuffi cient information about the course of postcortical encephalitis in patients with multiple sclerosis who are taking immunosuppressive drugs.<br>The article presents data on the clinical classifi cation, diagnosis and treatment of measles encephalitis. A clinical case of measles inclusion body encephalitis in a thirty-threeyear-old patient with multiple sclerosis on the background of annual intake of monoclonal antibodies is presented. She also had viral-bacterial pneumonia and developed disseminated intravascular coagulation in the brain and lungs. These complications of measles infection led to the death of the person after a month and a half of intensive care. Thus, patients with multiple sclerosis who are taking drugs with immunosuppressive eff ects are among the risk group for measles inclusion body encephalitis. Measles inclusion body encephalitis in such patients can be severe, which complicates timely diagnosis, proper treatment and leads to death.</p> Tetiana Nehrych, Maria Shorobura, Irina Hritsyna , Liliia Yukhimiv, Sofiia Kyryliuk Copyright (c) Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0300 MEDICAL ASPECTS OF SURROGATE MOTHERHOOD <p>Surrogacy is associated with a wide range of factors that increase maternal and perinatal risks. The use of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer technologies determines the higher frequency of multiple pregnancies that enhances the risk of cesarean section, premature birth, low body weight in newborns, etc. in case of surrogacy. Genetic differences and immunogenetic reactions increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, placental pathology, abortion, intrauterine growth retardation. Hormonal disbalance under the effect of adverse factors during surrogate pregnancy may initiate prenatal reprogramming of morphogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms. This can affect the organogenesis and predispose to susceptibility to various diseases. Psychological factors and emotional link between a surrogate mother and a fetus are associated with increased levels of hormones of stress-releasing systems, which affect the formation of neurohumoral systems of the fetus and can modulate its mental development.</p> Oksana Sulaieva Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0300 MODULATION OF MELOXICAM-INDUCED CHANGES IN GASTROINTESTINAL AND MOTOR ACTIVITY OF THE STOMACH BY APPLYING PLACENTA CRYOEXTRACT <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Current approaches to reducing the ulcerogenicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are aimed primarily at eliminating the damaging effect on the gastric mucosa, and according to the literature, the use of proton pump inhibitors can even worsen the course of enteropathy.</p> <p><strong>Objectives.</strong> To characterize the influence of cryopreserved placenta extract on the state of secretory and motor-evacuation activity of the stomach under the conditions of experimental meloxicam-induced gastropathy and enteropathy.</p> <p><strong>Methods. </strong>Serial randomized placebo-controlled studies were performed on nonlinear rats and mice using a model of small intestine-induced gastrointestinal lesions. Gastric secretion in rats, gastric evacuation function and intestinal motor function in mice were studied with the help of standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The administration of meloxicam leads to a statistically significant increase (p &lt;0.05) in the volume of gastric secretion by 31.6±7.3%, an increase in total acidity (p=0.002) by 7.7 [7.7; 16.6]% and a statistically significant increase (p&lt;0.05) in peristaltic activity by 18.9% relative to intact animals. The administration of cryopreserved placenta extract led to a statistically significant (p=0.002) decrease in the ratio of free and total acidity by 2.3 times, with a statistically significant decrease (p&lt;0.05) by 14.5% in peristaltic activity relative to intact animals. The combined threaded administration of meloxicam and cryopreserved placenta extract was accompanied by a decrease in the ratio of free and total acidity by 43.0±3.0%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion. </strong>The combined application of placental cryoextract and meloxicam eliminates meloxicam-induced hypersecretion of gastric juice and gastric hypermobility. The cryoextract has also proved to reduce the aggressiveness of gastric juice by reducing its free and increasing combined acidity.</p> Fedir Hladkykh, Mykola Chyzh Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0300 HYDROGEN SULFIDE-RELEASING ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUG ATB-340 TREATMENT POTENTIALLY REDUCES MESENTERIC METAFLAMMATION IN THE EXPERIMENTAL AGE- AND HIGH FRUCTOSE DIETARY-INDUCED INJURY <p>Metaflammation (MF) is associated with visceral adiposities involved in the metabolic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal disease pathogenesis while their target therapeutic strategy is still limited. The link between mesenteric white adipocytes (MA) and stromal-vascular cellular remodeling in advanced age and Western diet consumption which is the base of MF remain undiscovered. Hydrogen Sulfide (H<sub>2</sub>S) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (H<sub>2</sub>S-NSAIDs) are a promising novel class of drugs regarding their cytoprotective, regulatory redox signaling, vasodilatory, and anti-inflammatory effects.</p> <p><strong>Aim.</strong> To study the effectiveness of novel H<sub>2</sub>S-NSAIDs ATB-340, a hybrid compound of H<sub>2</sub>S and aspirin (ASA) over conventional ASA, and combination of ASA and NaHS on mesenteric cellular adaptive changes in experimental age- and high fructose dietary (HFD)-induced injury.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Mesenteric subcellular adaptive responses of aged male rats on a standard diet (SD) or 4 weeks HFD that underwent acute water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS) were evaluated by electron microscopy. The effects of 9 days exogenous administration of ATB-340 (17.5 mg/kg/day), ASA (10 mg/kg/day) and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 5.6 mg/kg/day) were investigated. Serum glucose level, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and activities of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), thiosulfate-dithiol sulfurtransferase (TST), and sulfite oxidase (SO) were examined biochemically using spectrophotometry.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In HFD groups exposed to WIRS treatment with ATB-340 protected MA, as well their mitochondria, microvascular endothelial, and sub-endothelial structures, fibroblasts were observed vs the ASA and H<sub>2</sub>S+ASA-treated groups that had signs of endothelial dysfunction, MA damage with dysfunctional mitochondria, and mitochondria with fat incorporation. In rats fed with HFD and ASA treatment, low activities of CSE, CBS, TST and the rise of TBARS level and SO activity were observed. Treatment with ASA+NaHS, ATB-340 of aged rats lowered TBARS and enhanced H<sub>2</sub>S enzyme activities in contrast to the vehicle-treated group (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Mitochondrial alterations, endothelial damage, and redox disbalance are key factors for aged rat mesenteric adipose tissue remodeling during Western diet consumption. Our results contributing to identifying powerful intervention by effective compound H<sub>2</sub>S-ASA, novel H<sub>2</sub>S-NSAIDs, which has the potential to modulate mesenteric metaflammation, vascular function by enhancement H<sub>2</sub>S synthesis and redox regulatory and cytoprotective activities</p> Oleg Revenko, Vasyl Kovalyshyn, Antonina Yashchenko, John Wallace, Oksana Zayachkivska Copyright (c) 2021 Proceeding of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences Sun, 13 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 OPTIC NERVE SHEATH DIAMETER, MEAN FLOW RATE, PULSATILITY INDEX AND PREECLAMPSIA <p><strong>Background: </strong>Ultrasound has led to non-invasive neuromonitoring for surveillance and decision-making of aspects affecting the central nervous system. The aim was to determine the correlation between mean blood pressure and bilateral optic nerve sheath diameter, pulsatility index and mean flow rate of the middle cerebral artery in cases of preeclampsia/eclampsia.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a prospective cohort study, including pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia/eclampsia who received medical attention in an Intensive Care Unit. The registered ultrasonographic measurements (optic nerve sheath diameter, pulsatility index and mean flow rate) were correlated against mean blood pressure at admission and after 24 and 72 hours. The recorded data were entered in an Excel sheet with subsequent use of the Social Science Statistics online web page.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The correlation analysis indicated that at admission, mean blood pressure had a significant negative correlation with mean flow rate (right: R2 = -0.52547, <em>p</em> = 0.04426 and left: R2 = -0.63628, <em>p</em> = 0.01077). In relation to optic nerve sheath diameter, the only positive and significant correlation was the one observed with mean blood pressure after 24 hours following admission (R2 = 0.56980, <em>p</em> = 02659).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Mean flow rate measurements give more consistent and useful information than optic nerve sheath diameter in the hemodynamic evaluation of the preeclamptic women in the first 24 hours.</p> Jorge Tonatiuh Pérez Cruz, Claudia González León, Hugo Mendieta Zerón Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0300 IMMUNE-RELATED MECHANISMS, MOLECULAR AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH THE SYSTEMIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES WITH CRYOGLOBULINEMIC SYNDROME <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Cryoglobulinemic syndrome (CGS) is an immune-related process caused by cryoglobulins composition in the blood in small or medium vessels. Most frequently, CGS is triggered by lymphotropic viruses, immune-related and oncological diseases.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> Studying the immune-related mechanisms, molecular and genetic characteristics of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD) against the cryoglobulinemic syndrome.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Methods: </strong>Among 380 patients with SAD, in 94 (57.6%) progressing chronic EBV-infection was diagnosed, and 22.1% of patients were diagnosed with progressing chronic HSV 1/2-infection based on DNA virus identification through the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in three biological media (blood, saliva, mucus membrane scraping).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Analysis of the cryoglobulins in such patients showed that CGS was diagnosed in 118 (31.1%) patients with the mean concentration of CG1.68±0.33 g/l at a rate of 0.48 ±0.10g/l. The patients with the systemic connective tissue diseases with CGS demonstrated statistically lower miR-146а expression which resulted in the abnormal production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the highest TLR9 expression on monocytes, slightly lower on lymphocytes, and the lowest on granulocytes; the increase in the relative amount of cytolytic T-lymphocytes, IL2 receptor lymphocytes, activated CD HLA DR+-lymphocytes against the reduction of NK-cells and regulatory suppressor CD4<sup>+</sup>/25<sup>+</sup>-cells was observed.&nbsp; The idiopathic and initiated oxidative monocyte capacity in CGS patients distinctly tended to increase, as compared to patients without CGS and normal individuals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions. </strong>Cryoglobulins may act as the so-called bridge between viral infections and the autoimmune processes. CGS was diagnosed in 31.1% of patients.&nbsp; Despite a substantial number of studies dedicated to the cryoglobulinemic syndrome, the peculiarities of the immune reaction of such patients need further research, since they create the risks of secondary vasculitis against SAD</p> Khrystyna Lishchuk-Yakymovych, Ihor Hayduchok, Kostyantyn Ishcheikin, Valentyna Chopyak Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 EARLY IMAGING AND COURSE-OF-DISEASE CONTROL MARKERS OF PYOGENIC VERTEBRAL OSTEOMYELITIS <p><strong>Background.</strong> The diagnosis of early pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis is essential for prompt determination of treatment strategy and prevention of suppurative-destructive complications, although the nonspecifi c clinical manifestation obstructs timely disease detection.<br><strong>Aim.</strong> To analyse the clinical accuracy of various radiological imaging methods for early detection and control over vertebral osteomyelitis course<br><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> A retrospective study of standardized clinical data of patients (N = 54) who underwent treatment at the Neurosurgery Department of the MМCC WR between 2010 and 2020 was carried out. Patients were observed for 12–36 months. Study fi ndings and discussion. Our study revealed that during radiological imaging, infl ammatory changes in the vertebrae specifi c to osteomyelitis were not found in any case, which signifi cantly delays the diagnosis. The study analysed and grouped radiological signs of the infl ammatory process spread in the vertebrae in case of spondylodiscitis by CT and MR stages. Spondylodiscitis was diagnosed by CT of the spine in the late third stage only in 29.0 % of<br>patients. Nonspecifi c destructive changes of vertebrae were detected in 51.6% of persons, which required additional MRI examination to establish the diagnosis. In 19.4% of those examined in the presence of the fi rst MR stage, no specifi c CT signs of osteomyelitis were found. MRI scan of the spine is the main specifi c (93 %), accurate (94 %) and sensitive (97 %) method for early detection of pyogenic osteomyelitis. Although according to the world literature, MRI is not sensitive enough to assess the dynamics of the infl ammatory process in the spine, the progressive increase in signal intensity of vertebral cortex on T1-weighted images within aff ected vertebrae correlates well with infl ammation resolving and C-reactive protein (CRP) level normalization. We described this radiological sign as a «vertebral rim» phenomenon (VRP). In our study, a reliable correlation was found between CRP level and the «vertebral rim» phenomenon on MRI.<br><strong>Conclusions.</strong> For early detection of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis, MRI examination is the main specifi c and sensitive method. We suggest combining the CRP level and «vertebral rim» sign in practice as dynamics of spondylodiscitis markers and justifi cation of antibacterial therapy strategy.</p> Ivan Bohdan, Zakhar Plakhtyr, Anastasiya Bohdan Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0300 SELF-PERCEPTION OF CHANGES IN LIFESTYLE AND WELLBEING ASSOCIATED WITH SOCIAL DISTANCING DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS (the study in Lviv, Ukraine) <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Social distancing related to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS COV2 is an important precautionary measure, implemented by WHO approximately 1 year ago. At the same time, it is a large-scale stressor that has led to multiple changes in the lifestyle around the world. In this crisis, the well-being and health of medical students who belong to the individuals with a high risk of distress in the population are very important for society.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The purpose of this research is to study the impact of COVID-19-related stay-at-home policy, social isolation, online academic learning, and working on the medical students' lifestyle and well-being focusing on their self-perception of telecommunication technologies, social media, as well as on the psychophysiological state, and eating behavior of medical students of Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University (LNMU).</span></p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> A prospective, cohort study was carried out on 273 medical students of the LNMU via an anonymous online survey using Google Forms. 273 people of different ethnicities answered the original questionnaire, which includes: 1) general questions (age, gender, ethnicity, family, education, work, and economic status); 2) issues related to the use of social media; 3) questions about the impact of social distancing on lifestyle; 4) the scale of stress perception.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The cohort for the study consisted of 166 women and 107 men in the following age groups: from 17 to 24&nbsp;— 92&nbsp;%, 25–31&nbsp;— 4&nbsp;%, 35–44&nbsp;— 2&nbsp;&nbsp;%, and over 45 years&nbsp;— 2&nbsp;%. Ethnic groups included Asian&nbsp;— 47&nbsp;%, Caucasian&nbsp;— 41&nbsp;%, African&nbsp;— 7&nbsp;%, Hispanic</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;— 3&nbsp;%, and multiracial people&nbsp;— 2&nbsp;%.</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Social exclusion during COVID-19 was found to be caused by a change in the use of social media, more time spent on using them by all respondents. Among these, 88&nbsp;% acknowledge that social media have a great impact and 71&nbsp;% of responders learn basic information about the pandemic via social media. However, 52&nbsp;% doubt the reliability of the information. The feeling of anxiety, panic, which characterized the perception of stress caused by information on social media, was reported by 56&nbsp;% of respondents. Almost all respondents changed their lifestyle, which was characterized by physical inactivity and changed eating behavior. About 60&nbsp;% of respondents reported overeating in the evening and at night (19:00&nbsp;— 5:00) and almost half of all respondents reported weight gain in the last year. All respondents know about the benefits of physical activity to overcome signs of psycho-emotional stress, but only about 10&nbsp;% of respondents exercise regularly. There were no differences in the responses from students belonging to the Caucasian group or other ethnicities.</span></p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;"> The lifestyle of student youth, their eating behavior, and psycho-emotional state are being modified during COVID-19. Social media is an important informative factor in the context of social exclusion and the fight against chronic stress</span></p> Iryna Muzyka, Barbara Belka, Yulia Ostrovska, Oksana Zayachkivska Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 DIAGNOSTIC PREDICTORS OF TOLERANCE DEVELOPMENT IN THE ELIMINATION DIET IN CHILDREN WITH COW'S MILK PROTEIN ALLERGY <p><strong>Background</strong>. Cow's milk protein allergy is a topical issue in pediatrics. This disease affects 2-3% of young children.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The study included 30 children with a confirmed cow’s milk protein allergy and a prescribed milk elimination diet. The children were observed for 36 months. The molecular profile was evaluated by detecting the major components of milk (Bos d 8, Bos d 5, Bos d 4), minor (Bos d 6), and cross-reactive with serum albumin (Fel d 2, Can f 3).</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The study group included 46.7% of boys. The mean age of the subjects was 14.5±3.18 months. Nine of the 25 analyzed factors were identified in the course of our work by the method of logistic regression with progressive selection, which in combined action affect the formation of tolerance to cow's milk proteins in allergic children. There are three clinical examples of calculating the prediction of the complete tolerance development in the elimination diet in children with cow's milk protein allergy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Independent predictors that reduce the likelihood of the tolerance development in the elimination diet, have identified: skin test to milk, Bos d 8, Bos d 5, Bos d 4, Bos d 6. Independent predictors of the tolerance development in the elimination diet are: milk-specific IgE, total IgE, Fel d 2, Can f 3. Low probability of tolerance development by elimination therapy is a recommendation for prescribing treatment to a patient by specific oral tolerance induction.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Oksana Matsyura, Lesya Besh, Natalia Lukyanenko, Oksana Kovalska, Khrystyna Slivinska-Kurchak , Yaryna Nagurna Copyright (c) 2021 Proceeding of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences Mon, 07 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 TOWARD A COHESIVE CLINICAL INTERPRETATION OF MENTAL DISORDERS IN SARS-COV-2 PANDEMIC: AN EXPERT OPINION <p><strong>Аbstract.</strong> As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, the observed increase in mental health issues requires more and more clinical attention. Mental disorders have become a major cause for disturbances in social adjustment, primarily due to disorders that fall into three clusters: prolonged fatigue (asthenia) with cognitive impairment; anxiety disorders with sleep disorders; and depression. The last two are also found in individuals who have not contracted SARS-CoV-2; they are seen as a result of their exposure to the stress of the pandemic. Therefore, to successfully manage the consequences of the pandemic, it is necessary to develop a cohesive clinical interpretation of mental disorders related to COVID-19 infection. Our proposed model would encompass all the above manifestations as follows: а) <em>for the general population</em> – by the triad of ‘nosogenic reactions’ with excessive (hyper-), normal (normo-) or ignoring (hyponosognostic) psychological responses to stress related to the <em>semantics and individual significance </em>of the SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (nosos); b) <em>for long COVID</em> – by the biopsychosocial model as a typical combination of neurotoxic asthenia with cognitive impairment (Bonhoeffer’s neurobiological factor) that exacerbates ‘nosogenic’ anxiety and sleep disorders (psychological factor) and thus provokes a depressive response (as a social maladaptive factor)</p> Oleksandr Filts, Oleh Fitkalo, Oksana Lyzak, Oleh Berezyuk, Olha Myshakivska, Lyudmyla Samsonova, Alfred Pritz Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 A PROTOCOL FOR THE DETECTION OF GENETIC MARKERS IN SALIVA BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION WITHOUT A NUCLEIC ACID PURIFICATION STEP: EXAMPLES OF SARS-COV-2 AND GAPDH MARKERS <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic tests use purifi ed nucleic acids (NAs) from clinical samples. The NAs purifi cation step adds time, cost, and aff ects the quality of testing. The objective of this study was to develop a protocol for direct use of saliva in tests for genetic markers, without purifi cation of nucleic acids.<br><strong>Methods.</strong> PCR, real-time RT-PCR and isothermal amplifi cation tests were used for direct detection of genetic markers, without purifi cation of nucleic acids.<br><strong>Results.</strong> We report a protocol for the direct detection of genetic markers in saliva. The protocol is based on a collection of saliva in a solution containing a detergent and ethanol and is compatible with isothermal amplifi cation (LAMP), real-time RT-PCR and RT-PCR. SARS-CoV-2 and GAPDH markers were used as reference markers. We observed that mild detergents allow effi cient detection of external reference and intracellular endogenous markers, while strong detergent, e.g. sodium dodecyl sulfate, inhibited the PCR reaction. Under these conditions, saliva samples can be stored for 24 h at +4°C or –18°C with the preservation of markers. Storage at room temperature led to the deterioration of marker detection. Snap heating of saliva samples at the time of collection, followed by storage at room temperature, provided partial protection.<br><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The protocol presented in this report describes the collection and storage of saliva for direct detection of genetic markers and is compatible with PCR and LAMP tests.</p> Surya Kannan, Johan Ericsson, Nazariy Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy Souchelnytskyi Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0300 THE ANTI-PLAGIARISM EVALUATION IN THE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY: PRIMARY RESULTS IN TERMS OF ACADEMIC INTEGRITY <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Anti-plagiarism evaluation is an integral component of the system of educational and scientific activities in particular and higher education in general. Modern areas for combating academic plagiarism include programmatic verification, optimizing the evaluation by implementing new algorithms, applying online and desktop software based on academic integrity strategies. This is why the process of technical verification of scientific papers requires significant time and physical resources.</p> <p><em><strong>&nbsp;</strong></em></p> <p><em><strong>Aim. </strong></em><em>&nbsp;To optimize measures used to eliminate academic plagiarism based on the analysis of initial results and the experience of anti-plagiarism evaluation in terms of the implementation of academic integrity principles. </em></p> <p><strong>Material and methods.</strong>&nbsp; The Code of Academic Ethics of Lviv National Medical University (LNMU) determines basic concepts and the task of academic integrity, regulates basic principles of organization and control. According to the Law of Ukraine “On Higher Education”<br>and applicable orders, university standards and regulations, LNMU Scientific Department conducted an expert assessment and plagiarism evaluation of 5992 scientific and methodological papers submitted for 3 years. The evaluation of all scientific papers in terms of academic integrity is carried out considering the percentage of uniqueness and results of direct semantic analysis. The comparative pedagogical analysis of primary results was also conducted.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. Unichek, Plagiarism Detector Pro, Viper, Antiplagiarism.NET, etc. and free Advego Plagiatus software is used at the university based on the shingle method for plagiarism detection. Links to software and services for initial verification of scientific papers for plagiarism are included in the LNMU methodological guidelines to provide technical support of scientific and educational work assessment. In 954 small and medium length scientific papers (15.92% of the total sample), violations of scientific communication were found: copying, signs of the conflict of interest.&nbsp; 778 (12.98%) of abstracts and articles were finally rejected (as a result of refusal to revise and negative results of the repeated evaluation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Primary results of anti-plagiarism evaluation cause concerns in terms of their academic integrity: higher incidence of self-plagiarism and replications of scientific research results in articles and abstracts of young scientists. It is crucial to comprehensively and fully review documents determining plagiarism prevention and establishing responsibility for academic plagiarism, specifying the procedure for considering appeals</p> Andrii Vergun, Andrii Nakonechnyi, Svitlana Yagelo Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0300 IVAN PULUJ AND THE DISCOVERY OF X-RAYS <p>On January 5, 1896, the Austrian newspaper <em>Die Presse</em> published an article entitled “A Sensational Discovery”. It was dedicated to the discovery of X-rays made on November 8, 1895 by the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen. Having taken into account the contribution of other scientists, the precondition of the given epochal, yet unexpected, discovery was, first and foremost, the work of the Ukrainian scientist Ivan Puluj. It was Puluj who laid the foundation for X-ray science. He explained the nature of X-rays, discovered that they can ionize atoms and molecules, and defined the place of X-ray emergence and their distribution in space. In 1881, Puluj constructed a cathode lamp (“Puluj’s tube”) which was fundamentally a new type of light source. In the same year, in recognition of this discovery, Puluj received an award at the International Exhibition in Paris. Investigating the processes in cathode-ray tubes, Ivan Puluj set the stage for two ground-breaking discoveries in physics, namely X-rays and electrons.</p> <p>Puluj used his cathode lamp in medicine as a source of intense X-rays which proved to be highly efficient. The exact date of the first X-ray images received by Puluj remains unknown. High-quality photographs of the hand of an eleven-year-old girl, taken on January 18, 1896, are preserved. Multiple X-ray images clearly visualized pathological changes in the examined structures (fractures, calluses, tuberculous bone lesions). High-quality images were obtained by means of the anticathode in the design of Puluj’s lamp, which was the first in the world. The image of the whole skeleton of a stillborn child (published on April 3, 1896 in <em>The Photogram</em>) is considered to be the starting point of using X-rays in anatomy.</p> Uliana Pidvalna, Roman Plyatsko, Vassyl Lonchyna Copyright (c) 2021 Wed, 07 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0300 HISTORY OF JULES BORDEAUX IDEAS (dedicated to 150 anniversary of the birth of a scientist) <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The experimental period in the history of immunology as a science can be attributed to the years of scientific activity of the world-famous bacteriologist and immunologist Jules Bordeaux, who was the first to experimentally prove the physicochemical nature of such immune reactions as agglutination, hemolysis, precipitation. He was also involved in revealing the nature of phagocytosis reactions and established the relationship between the virulence of the microorganism and the presence of a capsule and phagocytosis. Owing to the discovery of Jules Bordeaux, mankind became aware of the cytotoxic properties of blood serum. Bordeaux’s scientific heritage was the elucidation of the role of complement in immunological processes, which was proved experimentally during the work of a young scientist at the Pasteur Institute in the laboratory of I.&nbsp;I&nbsp;Mechnikov, who considered J.&nbsp;Bordeaux one of his favorite students. In collaboration with Octave Zhangou, the complement fixation reaction underlying Wasserman’s reaction was first proposed. Bordeaux is well known around the world for the «driving force» of immunity&nbsp;— the connection of antigen to antibody. He can be regarded as one of the founders of the method of serodiagnosis.</span></p> <ol> <li class="show"><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Bordeaux was the director of the Pasteur Institute in Brussels for 35 years, the world’s only autonomous Pasteur Institute unrelated to Paris.</span></li> </ol> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Jules Bordeaux’s scientific legacy continued and became the basis for many epoch-making discoveries in medicine, including the explanation of the mechanisms of anaphylaxis, the study of blood clotting, the discovery of blood groups, etc. The theoretical substantiation of immunological reactions became the beginning of a new diagnostic direction in laboratory practice&nbsp;— immunoassay, which includes thousands of modern laboratory methods</span></p> Iryna Kovalenko, Olena Kril, Olena Korniychuk Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 RESULTS OF 24-HOUR ELECTROCARDIOGRAM MONITORING DEPENDING ON GALLBLADDER CONDITION <p>Gallbladder (GB) diseases are associated with structural and functional cardiac abnormalities. Biliary autonomous viscero-visceral cardioneuropathy (BAVVCNP) and post-biliary autonomous cardioneuropathy (PBACNP) are characterized by rhythm and conduction disorders, ST-segment depression, and signs of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with various GB disorders. The aim of this study was to compare results of 24-hour electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring in patients with BAVVCNP, PBACNP, and normal GB. 138 outpatients with cardiovascular and extracardiac disorders underwent 24-hour ECG monitoring. They were divided into three groups: intact GB (n=54); BAVVCNP (n=72); PBACNP (n=12). PBACNP patients were characterized by the absence of ST segment depressions, PR interval shortenings, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, sympathoadrenal overdrive in the mornings, pacemaker migration, or sinus node dysfunction. BAVVCNP was characterized by the development of active ectopic foci in the myocardium, increased cardiac output, GB wall thickening, and elevated total bilirubin level. Patients with PBACNP differed from those without cardioneuropathy by faster nocturnal heart rate, absence of episodes of ST segment depression, shorter QRS duration, and lower blood monocyte count</p> Larysa Strilchuk, Olena Zimba Copyright (c) Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 SOCIAL MEDIA USE AMONG RESEARCHERS FROM EASTERN EUROPE DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY STUDY <p>Social media platforms are essential for online scholarly activities in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Their use is critical in countries of non-mainstream science. This study aimed to evaluate the role of social media in scholarly activities in Eastern Europe. We collected responses from 127 scholars from Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania, and other Eastern European countries. They mainly reported spending 1-2 hours on social media activities. ResearchGate, Facebook, and LinkedIn were the most popular channels for post-publication article promotion. Only 17.3% of respondents were familiar with metrics generated by and Plum Analytics. Increasing awareness of the role of social media platforms and metrics for scholarly purposes requires more attention in Eastern Europe</p> Olena Zimba, Yaroslav Pavlovskyy, Oleh Danylyak, Nataliia Humenetska, Marta Kowalska, Ulyana Pidvalna Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 FUNDAMENTAL AND APPLIED LECTINOLOGY IN RESEARCH OF PROFESSOR ANTONINA YASHCHENKO (on the occasion of 75th birthday anniversary) <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Professor Antonina Yashchenko belongs to the group of outstanding morphologists, who developed and continue working productively for the popularization and implementation of the fundamental aspects, as well as spreading of applied lectinology methods in the morphologic research. As the result of her numerous studies in the field of lectin histochemistry were received new data on the applicability of a set of original lectin preparations purified and characterized in the «Lectinotest» from raw materials of the Carpathian region. Lectin-peroxidase and lectin-gold conjugates were applied in immunobiological research, light and electron microscopy, the methods of indirect identification of lectin receptors were worked out. Eventually these results were collected in a DSci dissertation of A.&nbsp;Yashchenko «Lectins as markers in normal and pathological conditions», conferred in 2004. This dissertation included a huge amount of authorized observations concerning wide possibilities of lectin histochemistry methods for studies of cell differentiation, identification of cellular subpopulations and diagnosis of pathological processes. Professor Yashchenko intensely studied the patterns of the rearrangement and redistrubution of lectin-reactive glycopolymers in the process of embryonic and postnatal morphogenesis, found out the possibilities of lectins’ application as selective histochemical markers of certain types of cells; studied the heterogeneity of lectins binding to cellular subpopulations depending on their tissue and organ specificity, as well as on the degree of their differentiation. Based on the results of the conducted research Prefessor Yashchenko published more than 250 papers in the professional journals, as well received 2 certificates of inventions. Published in 1999 «Atlas of Microanatomy of the Oral Cavity Organs» of her authorship got «The Yaroslav Mudryy award» of the Academy of Sciences of Higher School of Ukraine. Professor Antonina Yashchenko participated as a co-author in the National textbooks «Histology, cytology, and embryology» for Medical (2018) and Dentistry (2020) students. For these, as well as other morphology-related activities, in 2021 she was granted «A honorary award of the Ukrainian scientific society of anatomists, histologists, embryologists and topographo-anatomists»</span></p> Olga Dzhura, Khrystyna Strus, Ilona Сhelpanova, Аleksander Lutsyk Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 PROFESSOR BOHDAN-MYKHAYLO KOVALIV <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Богдан-Михайло Михайлович Ковалів народився у Львові 25 грудня 1928 року. Від дитячих років мріяв стати добрим лікарем, відтак 1945 року вступив на лікувальний факультет Львівського медичного інституту. Закінчивши його 1951 року з відзнакою, він спершу працював у лікарській амбулаторії села Скваряви на Львівщині (1951–1953&nbsp;рр.), згодом ординатором терапевтичного відділу 8-ї лікарні у Львові, далі молодшим, опісля старшим науковим співробітником Львівського НДІ туберкульозу (1953–1968 рр.), водночас за сумісництвом викладав у Львівському базовому медичному училищі.</span></p> Vasyl Kovalyshyn Copyright (c) Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 KHRYSTYNA-ZORYANA BILYNSKA <p>Христина-Зоряна Білинська (з родини Резників) народилася 21 вересня 1936 року у Львові. По материнській лінії походить з українців Закерзоння (Любачівщина), по батьківській&nbsp;— львів’янка, але з коренями, що сягають Тернопільщини.</p> Oresta Olhova-Bazylevych Copyright (c) Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 LYUBOV VASYLIVNA HOTSKO-NEY <p>Любов Василівна Гоцко-Ней народилась 1 жовтня 1932 року в родині львівських учителів. Її дитинство та шкільні роки проминули в дуже нелегких умовах: «золотий вересень», Друга світова війна, «визволення». Це були часи, коли лютували більшовицький терор, масові репресії, переслідування українців. Вона часто згадувала, що й у школі, й у Львівському медичному інституті, де навчалася у 1949–1956 роках неодноразово була свідком того, як не повертались до класу чи до студентської аудиторії ті її товаришки, яких «викликали до директора чи декана», як вони піддавались репресіям, арештам чи були вивезені разом з батьками. Однак вистояла, вижила, вивчилась на лікаря.</p> Zenovii Masnyi Copyright (c) Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 DMYTRO TELISHEVSKY (20.08.1959 — 08.06.2021) <p>Восьмого червня 2021 року на 62-му році життя нас покинув Дмитро Телішевський. Життєлюб, щирий, товариський, готовий до допомоги та підтримки своєму оточенню: сім’ї, родині, друзям, співробітникам.</p> <p>Світлу пам’ять про Дмитра Телішевського збережуть широкі кола друзів, колег і лікарів. Від імені однокласників, друзів та співробітників<br><br>Лікарська комісія НТШ у Львові глибоко сумує з приводу відходу у вічність Дмитра Телішевського! Вічна і світла пам'ять! У скорботі розділяємо невимовний біль</p> Adriana Haiduk Copyright (c) Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 MAKEEV V, TELISHEVSKA U, SHYBINSKYI V, TELISHEVSKA O, KULINCHENKO R. TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS [SKRONEVO-NYZHN’OSHCHELPNI ROZLADY]. LVIV: DANYLO HALYTSKY LVIV NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY UKRAINE. 2018. 404 P. (In Ukrainian) <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Maxillo-facial disorders, including pain, loss of function, or hyperfunction of the craniofacial complex are often attributed to temporomandibular disorders. These can be related or unrelated groups of musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, dental, neurologic, and emotional disorders.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Symptoms may include somatic pain, restricted movement of the lower jaw, inability to chew or swallow food, headache, vertigo, depression, and neurogenic pain, etc. Also, it is important to recognize factors in asymptomatic patients, as well as unrelated symptoms and signs.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The present monograph is a comprehensive paper exploring the anatomy of temporomandibular joints and related musculoskeletal, dental and neurologic components, classifications, etiology of pathology, and challenges in differential diagnostics. Illustrations are clear and carefully referenced.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The book contains 12 chapters that include diagnostic and imaging methods of temporomandibular joints, links between the pathology of dental arches and occlusion and temporomandibular disorders.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This is the culmination of the work undertaken by authors of the Prosthetic Dentistry Department at Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, which started back in 1999 and continues until the date of publication. References include English-language papers and those published in western literature, as well as Ukrainian sources. Citations of original papers of various authors are included in this volume, including results of examinations and therapies.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This work may be helpful to students, faculty, and practitioners in the fields of dentistry and health care. It is the first textbook of its kind written in the Ukrainian language, which makes it an important reference piece for the standardization of terminology among practicing dentists, academia and students. For this reviewer, the text was very readable and informative, particularly in terms of expanding my vocabulary in the Ukrainian language</span></p> Andrew Browar Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 ZAYACHKIVSKA O., KOVALCHUK I., SAVYTSKA M. NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY DEPARTMENT IN DANYLO HALYTSKY LVIV NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY THROUGH THE PRISM OF CENTURIES. LVIV, 2020. 64 Р. <p>The recently written booklet by Oksana Zayachkivska and her co-authors Iryna Kovalchuk and Maryana Savytska regarding the history of the Normal Physiology department of Lviv’s National Medical University turned out to became the story of its leaders, the heads of the department, and their achievements. It is written in Ukrainian and English and beautifully illustrated with pictures and drawings representing the spirit of the diff erent episodes. The history of any faculty in the west part of Ukraine and in particular the Physiology faculty of the University of Lviv, which celebrates now its 125 anniversary, can only be considered in the framework of the turbulent political and societal situation and the dramatic changes that have taken place in this timeframe and in particular in this part of Europe. And this makes an exciting story.</p> Gilles van Luijtelaar Copyright (c) Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 HISTOLOGY, CYTOLOGY & EMBRYOLOGY: A TEXTBOOK FOR STUDENTS OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH OF UKRAINE / EDITED BY OD LUTSYK, YU. B. TCHAIKOVSKY. VINNYTSIA : NOVA KNYHA 2020. 496 P. : IL <p>Предмет гістології, цитології та ембріології важливий в системі біомедичних дисциплін, оскільки він надає фахові знання, без яких неможливе подальше успішне опанування ні теоретичних, ні клінічних медичних дисциплін. Згідно з чинною програмою студенти стоматологічних факультетів вищих навчальних закладів України починають опановувати цей предмет від початку першого семестру, коли відбувається їхня адаптація до умов навчання у вищій школі. Перед авторами рецензованого підручника постало непросте завдання — в доступній формі викласти основи мікроскопічної будови людського тіла та гістофізіології його органів і систем, не загубивши при цьому основних постулатів предмета і не спрощуючи надмірно глибину подання матеріалу.</p> Rostyslav Stoika Copyright (c) Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 FUNCTIONAL DIAGNOSTICS. 2ND EDITION. EDS.: O.ZHARINOV, Y.IVANIV, V.KUTS. – KYIV: CHETVERTA HVYLIA, 2021. – 784 P. <p>Nowadays there is a great need for comprehensive clinical textbooks for physicians of diff erent medical specialities. An original textbook “Functional Diagnostics” recently published in Ukraine covers contemporary instrumental methods used to diagnose cardiovascular, nervous and lung diseases. The book includes four large parts: electrocardiography, ambulatory monitoring, echocardiography, and methods of functional diagnostics in neurology and pulmonology. The most attention is paid to ECG, ECG tests, ambulatory ECG monitoring and echocardiography. The use of these methods is discussed in terms of their history and basic features, contemporary evolution and recent international guidelines for the diagnostics of arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmia, heart failure, etc. Diff erent aspects of instrumental diagnostics are closely combined with clinical data interpretation. It is especially important that Chapter 41 of this book includes more than 500 well-selected original illustrations. This refl ects the signifi cant experience of authors representing leading Universities and clinical centres of Ukraine. Every chapter includes tests for readers’ self-control. Generally, the information provided in this relatively concise book will be useful for diff erent background levels, from medical residents and primary care to experienced specialists seeking to fi nd well-organized and clear information for their professional development. To conclude, this edition deserves the status of the “national textbook”, being of a special value for continued medical education for physicians.</p> Marta Telishevska Copyright (c) Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS <p><a href=""></a></p> . . Copyright (c) Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300