• N. Oryshchyn Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine
  • Y. Ivaniv Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine
Keywords: cardiac MRI, compaction, echocardiography, heart chambers, myocardial layers, noncompaction cardiomyopathy, systolic dysfunction


Introduction. Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a rare form of cardiomyopathy, congenital defect of the intrauterine process of ventricular embryogenesis. The main feature of this pathology is an existence of prominent trabeculations in the left ventricle and deep intertrabecular recesses. The pathological structure of the myocardium leads to its dilatation and dysfunction, heart failure symptoms, embolic episodes and arrhythmia.

The aim of the manuscript is to present a spectrum of clinical manifestations of left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC).

Materials and methods Patients were diagnosed and treated in The Lviv Centre of Cardiology. Two of them were admitted for heart failure symptoms, in one patient with dysrhythmia and left bundle brunch block (LBBB); and one patient had non-specific chest pain. Cardiac imaging with echocardiography and MRI were performed.

Results. Echocardiography revealed criteria of LVNC in all patient, in two of them the diagnosis was confirmed by cardiac MRI. Patients with heart failure symptoms were managed with optimal medical therapy, CRT-D has been implanted in patient with LBBB. Asymptomatic patient is under follow-up.

Conclusions. LVNC is a cardiomyopathy with distinct echocardiographic and MRI-features and wide spectrum of clinical presentations. The prognosis in case of LVNC is serious due to systolic LV dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmia and embolic events. Echocardiography is a diagnostic tool to identify LVNC, cardiac MRI confirms the diagnosis of LVNC if echocardiography data is insufficient.


Download data is not yet available.


Andreini D, Pontone, G, Bogaert J, et al. Long-term prognostic value of cardiac magnetic resonance in left ventricle noncompaction: a prospective multicenter study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016;68:2166–2181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2016.08.053

Cheng H, Lu M, Hou C., et al, Comparison of cardiovascular magnetic resonance characteristics and clinical consequences in children and adolescents with isolated left ventricular non-compaction with and without late gadolinium enhancement. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2015;17:44 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12968-015-0148-7

Chin TK, Perloff JK, Williams RG, et al. Isolated noncompaction of left ventricular myocardium: a study of eight cases. Circulation. 1990; 82:507-513. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.82.2.507

Elliott P, Andersson B, Arbustini E, et al. Classification of the cardiomyopathies: a position statement from the European Society Of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. European heart journal. 2008;29(2):270–6 https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehm342

Engberding R, Bender F: Identification of a rare congenital anomaly of the myocardium by two-dimensional echocardiography: persistence of isolated myocardial sinusoids. Am J Cardiol. 1984, 53:1733-1734. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9149(84)90618-0

Gati S, Rajani R, Carr-White G, Chambers JB Adult Left Ventricular Noncompaction: Reappraisal of Current Diagnostic Imaging Modalities JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, 2014;7(12):1266-1275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2014.09.005

Grothoff M, et al. Value of cardiovascular MR in diagnosing left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy and in discriminating between other cardiomyopathies. European radiology. 2012;22(12):2699–2709. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-012-2554-7

Gurunathan S, Senior R. Catastrophic stroke in a patient with left ventricular non-compaction. Echo Res Pract. 2018;5(3):K59-K62. https://doi.org/10.1530/ERP-18-0015

Habib G, Charron Ph, Eicher J-Ch et al. Isolated left ventricular non-compaction in adults: clinical and echocardiographic features in 105 patients. Results from a French registry. Eur J Heart Fail, 2011;13:177-185. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hfq225

Haland T F, et al. Echocardiographic comparison between left ventricular non-compaction and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. International journal of cardiology. 2017;228:900–905 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.11.162

Hussein A, Karimianpour A, Collier P, Krasuski RA. Isolated noncompaction of the left ventricle in adults. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2015;66:578–585. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2015.06.017

Jenni R, Goebel N, Tartini R, et al. Persisting myocardial sinusoids of both ventricles as an isolated anomaly: echocardiographic, angiographic, and pathologic anatomical findings. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 1986;9(3):127-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02577920

Jenni R, Oechslin E, Schnieder J, et al. Echocardiographic and pathoanatomical characteristics of isolated left ventricular non-compaction: a step towards classification as a distinct cardiomyopathy Heart. 2001;86:666–671. https://doi.org/10.1136/heart.86.6.666

Lofiego C, Biagini E, Pasquale F,et al. Wide spectrum of presentation and variable outcomes of isolated left ventricular non-compaction Heart, 2007;93:65-71. https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2006.088229

Muser D., Nucifora G., Gianfagna E., et al, Clinical spectrum of isolated left ventricular noncompaction: thromboembolic events, malignant left ventricular arrhythmias, and refractory heart failure. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2014;63: e39 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.063

Nucifora G, Sree Raman K, Muser D Cardiac magnetic resonance evaluation of left ventricular functional, morphological, and structural features in children and adolescents vs. young adults with isolated left ventricular non-compaction. Int J Cardiol. 2017 Nov 1;246:68-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.05.100

Oechslin E.N., Attenhofer-Jost C., Rojas J.R., et al. Long-term follow-up of 34 adults with isolated left ventricular noncompaction: a distinct cardiomyopathy with poor prognosis // J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2000;36:493-500. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(00)00755-5

Oechslin E and Jenni R. Left ventricular non-compaction revisited: a distinct phenotype with genetic heterogeneity? Euro Heart J 2011;32c1446-1456 https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehq508

Oryszczyn N., Pawlyk S., Iwaniw Y. Izolowane niescalenie lewej komory [In Polish]. [Isolated left ventricular non-compaction]. Polski Przegląd Kardiologiczny 2004;4:461–464.

Petersen SE, Selvanayagam JB, Wiesmann F, et al. Left ventricular non-compaction: insights from cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:101–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2005.03.045

Ritter M, Oechslin E, Sutsch G, et al. Isolated noncompaction of the myocardium in adults. Mayo Clin Proc, 1997; 72:26–31 https://doi.org/10.4065/72.1.26

Stöllberger C, Finsterer J. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrabeculation/non-compaction. Postgrad Med J. 2006;82(972):679-83. https://doi.org/10.1136/pgmj.2006.046169

Stollberger C, Gerecke B, Engberding R, Grabner B, Wandaller C, Finsterer J, et al. Interobserver Agreement of the Echocardiographic Diagnosis of LV Hypertrabeculation/Noncompaction. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015;8(11):1252–1257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2015.04.026

Sun H, Zhao Q, Wang Y, et al. Daily 10 mg rivaroxaban as a therapy for ventricular thrombus related to left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(4):e9670 https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000009670

Towbin J A, Jefferies J L. Cardiomyopathies due to left ventricular noncompaction, mitochondrial and storage diseases, and inborn errors of metabolism. Circulation research. 2017;121(7):838–854. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.117.310987

Thuny F, Jacquier A, Jop B, Giorgi R, Gaubert JY, Bartoli JM, et al. Assessment of left ventricular non-compaction in adults: side-by-side comparison of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with echocardiography. Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;103(3):150–9 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2010.01.002

Weir-McCall J.R., P.M. Yeap P. M., Papagiorcopulo C, et al. Left ventricular noncompaction: anatomical phenotype or distinct cardiomyopathy? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;68:2157-2165 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2016.08.054

Abstract views: 291
PDF Downloads: 198 PDF Downloads: 0
How to Cite
Oryshchyn N, Ivaniv Y. LEFT VENTRICULAR NON-COMPACTION CARDIOMYOPATHY. Proc Shevchenko Sci Soc Med Sci [Internet]. 2019Jun.24 [cited 2022Dec.2];55(1):78-3. Available from: https://mspsss.org.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/7