PHYSIOLOGICAL PREDICTORS OF LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF COVID-19 IN PATIENTS WITH SARS-COV-2: FOCUS ON LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION-IMPROVING MICRONUTRIENTS
Patients with long-term effects of coronavirus disease, the so-called “long-term COVID-19 syndrome” (long-COVID-19) after SARS-CoV-2 infection, have a postponed recovery lasting from 4 weeks and up to six months, spread worldwide.
Physiological predictors based on human blood biomarkers and host-virus responses to SARS-CoV-2 are still unknown. There is growing evidence about the impact of micronutrients on improving lymphocyte proliferation and their essential roles for a functioning human immune system and regulating metabolic health. This paper aims to review information about micronutrients in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection that determines long-COVID-19 outcomes and highlight the importance of diagnostics in predictors of long-COVID-19. We reviewed articles returned from searches on PubMed/SCOPUS/Web of Science/ EMBASE databases using a combination of terms “long COVID-19”, “long-term effects of COVID-19”, “post-COVID-19 symptoms”, “COVID-19 associated stress”, “micronutrients”. Evidence indicates the relationship between lymphocyte proliferation improving micronutrient level and long-COVID-19 induction. Zinc, selenium, iron, manganese have an immunomodulatory function in innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infection. Anti-inflammatory functions of Vits A and B groups include the regulation of lymphocyte proliferation and metabolic health. Further research using sampling and artificial intelligence-assisted algorithms could assist in the recognition of the correlation of micronutrients and long-COVID-19 clinical outcomes
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