MICROBIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS

Keywords: nosocomial infections, HAIs, ICU

Abstract

Nosocomial infections, also known as health care-associated infections (HAIs) are infections that appear in patients under medical care in hospitals or other health care facilities and were absent at the time of admission. From 5 to 7 thousand cases of HAIs are registered in Ukraine every year, but according to experts, the actual number is 900 thousand cases per year. Intensive care unit (ICU) represents a prominent tool in HAIs control and quality assurance in many developed countries. In this respect, the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends monitoring HAI as a leading tool for the reduction of HAIs. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate microbiological profile of nosocomial infections in ICU of public hospitals in Lviv, Ukraine.

Material and methods. 105 clinical materials from 50 patients in two public hospitals in Lviv (Lviv Regional clinical hospital and Military Medical Clinical Center of the Western Region) were analyzed during July-December 2018. 114 strains of pathogens were isolated. HAIs was defined as an infection that appeared in patients later than 48 hours after admission to the hospital. Urinary tract infections (UTI), blood stream infection (BI), respiratory tract infection (RTI) and surgical site infections (SSI) were diagnosed using the criteria defined by the CDC and clinical protocols. Causative bacterial strains were isolated and identified using standard methods and chromogenic media CHROMID*S.aureusElite, CHROMID*VRE, CHROMID*MRSASMART, CHROMID*CARBASMART, CHROMID* ESBL, CHROMID*OXA-48, CHROMID*Candida (Biomerieux) and biochemical identification kitsMIKRO-LA-TESTNEFERMtest24, ENTEROtest24, CANDIDAtest21, STAPHYtest24, STREPTOtest24 (ErbaLacema, Czech  Republic). Antibiotic sensitivity test was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. (Ethical Committee or Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Approval Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University: 25/06/2018 № 6). HAIs structure was as follows: Staphylococcus lentus (22%), Eschrichia coli (22%), Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp.ozaenae (9.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (43.9%),  Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp.pneumonia (8.8%), Srreptococcus spp. (7.0%), Burkholderia pseudomallei (5.3%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (3.5), Staphylococcus aureus (3.5%). There were several types of HAIs which are rarely found, such as Staphylococcus lentus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Aerococcus viridans, Pragia fontium, Aeromonasichthiosmia, Raoultella terrigena, Macrococcus caseolyticus.

Conclusions. In the era of antibiotics, HAIs are still uncontrollable. It is assessed that over 90.0% of HAIs are not recognized as epidemics. It is important to remember this fact when attempting to design prevention or control strategy to reduce HAIs either at WHO level, or at the level of local health care unit.

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Published
2019-06-24
How to Cite
1.
Konechnyi Y, Skurativskyi Y, Tymchuk I, Pidhirnyi Y, Kornіychuk O. MICROBIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS. Proc Shevchenko Sci Soc Med Sci [Internet]. 2019Jun.24 [cited 2022Jan.17];55(1):56-4. Available from: https://mspsss.org.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/5