CHANGING RESEARCH PARADIGM IN THE FACE OF A GLOBAL PANDEMIC: FORESEEABLE IMPACT AND ADAPTIVE MEASURES IN ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN THE FUTURE

Keywords: Coronavirus, Research, Misinformation, Social Media, ethical

Abstract

The Coronavirus disease 2 (Covid-19) pandemic has led to a massive rise in research in a bid to understand more about the new disease and cope better with the pandemic.  The need to socially distance and limited human movement in open spaces since the COVID-19 outbreak have brought most forms of research to a standstill. While most research incentives have been directed towards research regarding the pandemic, diminished patient visits, have paralysed all the studies requiring personal and physical examination. Majority of the social interactions have been reduced to a screen, and this is also the new practice in the research realm.

This unique situation calls for a need to re-examine research practices and reinvent novel methods for quality research. While it is prudent to step up research to understand the disease and its impact on varied conditions, the situation also necessitates a close watch for misinformation, erroneous reporting, and failure of ethical research.  Moreover, there is a felt need to derive validated tools for remote assessment to minimise risk to the patients and physicians alike.

In this brief, we discuss the perceived changes and potential areas for erroneous research reporting while providing possible solutions for fruitful research in the peri-pandemic period. We also identify new methods of conducting studies and the setbacks that could be faced while carrying out such tasks, including those of methodological, ethical and financial nature. We hope these may shape researcher perspectives and help them to conduct ethical and valid research in these, particularly trying times.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Rewari BB, Mangadan-Konath N, Sharma M. Impact of COVID-19 on the global supply chain of antiretroviral drugs: a rapid survey of Indian manufacturers. WHO South East Asia J Public Health. 2020 Sep;9(2):126-33.

https://doi.org/10.4103/2224-3151.294306

Wang M, Wu T, Zuo Z, et al. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care Epub ahead of print: [2020]. doi:10.1136/ bmjspcare-2020-002554Wang M, Wu T, Zuo Z, You Y, Yang X, Pan L, et al. Evaluation of current medical approaches for COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2020 Sep 21;

https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjspcare-2020-002554

Shi Q, Zhou Q, Wang X, Liao J, Yu Y, Wang Z, et al. Potential effectiveness and safety of antiviral agents in children with coronavirus disease 2019: a rapid review and meta-analysis. Ann Transl Med. 2020 May;8(10):624.

https://doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-3301

Haldule S, Davalbhakta S, Agarwal V, Gupta L, Agarwal V. Post-publication promotion in rheumatology: a survey focusing on social media [published online ahead of print, [2020]. Rheumatol Int. 2020;1-8. doi:10.1007/s00296-020-04700-7Haldule S, Davalbhakta S, Agarwal V, Gupta L, Agarwal V. Post-publication promotion in rheumatology: a survey focusing on social media. Rheumatol Int. 2020 Sep 13;

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00296-020-04700-7

Islam JY, Camacho-Rivera M, Vidot DC. Examining COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors among Cancer Survivors in the United States: an analysis of the COVID-19 Impact Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2020:cebp.0801.2020. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0801. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32978173Islam JY, Camacho-Rivera M, Vidot DC. Examining COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors among Cancer Survivors in the United States: an analysis of the COVID-19 Impact Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2020 Sep 25;

https://doi.org/10.1158/1557-3265.COVID-19-S07-01

Misra DP, Ravindran V. Publication misconducts related to copyright:copyright : tread carefully to avoid fallingfalling ! J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2020

https://doi.org/10.4997/JRCPE.2020.101

: 3-5! | Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sep 28]. Available from: http://www.rcpe.ac.uk/college/journal/publication-misconducts-related-copyright-tread-carefully-avoid-falling

Buss LF, Prete CA, Abrahim CM, Mendrone A, Salomon T, Almeida-Neto C de, et al. COVID-19 herd immunity in the Brazilian Amazon. medRxiv. 2020 Sep 21;2020.09.16. 20194787 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.16.20194787.

https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.16.20194787

Tang Z, Dubois S, Soon C, Agrawal D. A model for the pandemic and beyond: Telemedicine for all outpatient gastroenterology referrals reduces unnecessary clinic visits. J Telemed Telecare. 2020:1357633X20957224. doi: 10.1177/1357633X20957224. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32954940. Tang Z, Dubois S, Soon C, Agrawal D. A model for the pandemic and beyond: Telemedicine for all outpatient gastroenterology referrals reduces unnecessary clinic visits. J Telemed Telecare. 2020 Sep 20;1357633X20957224.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X20957224

Andujar M, Roura E, Torres A and the HPV Canary Study Group, et al Prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papilomavirus infection in the pre-vaccination era: a population-based study in the Canary Islands BMJ Open 2020;10:e037402. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037402Andujar M, Roura E, Torres A, Vega B, Pavcovich M, Sanchez MA, et al. Prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papilomavirus infection in the pre-vaccination era: a population-based study in the Canary Islands. BMJ Open. 2020 Sep 24;10(9):e037402.

https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037402

Costa L, Tasso M, Scotti N, Mostacciuolo E, Girolimetto N, Foglia F, Del Puente A, Scarpa R, Caso F. Telerheumatology in COVID-19 era: a study from a psoriatic arthritis cohort. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020: annrheumdis-2020-217806. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217806. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32527866Costa L, Tasso M, Scotti N, Mostacciuolo E, Girolimetto N, Foglia F, et al. Telerheumatology in COVID-19 era: a study from a psoriatic arthritis cohort. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 Jun 11;annrheumdis-2020-217806.

https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217806

Gupta, Latikaa; Chinoy, Hectorb,c,d Monitoring disease activity and damage in adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, Current Opinion in Rheumatology: 2020 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print - Issue -doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000749 Monitoring disease activity and damage in adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathy - PubMed [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sep 28]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32890032/

https://doi.org/10.1097/BOR.0000000000000749

Davalbhakta S, Advani S, Kumar S, et al. A Systematic Review of Smartphone Applications Available for Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID19) and the Assessment of their Quality Using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). J Med Syst. 2020;44(9):164. Published 2020. doi:10.1007/s10916-020-01633-3Davalbhakta S, Advani S, Kumar S, Agarwal V, Bhoyar S, Fedirko E, et al. A Systematic Review of Smartphone Applications Available for Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID19) and the Assessment of their Quality Using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). J Med Syst. 2020 Aug 10;44(9):164.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-020-01633-3

Gupta L, Gasparyan AY, Misra DP, Agarwal V, Zimba O, Yessirkepov M. Information and Misinformation on COVID-19: a Cross-Sectional Survey Study. J Korean Med Sci. 2020 ;35(27):e256. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e256. PMID: 32657090

https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e256

PMCID: PMC7358067.Gupta L, Gasparyan AY, Misra DP, Agarwal V, Zimba O, Yessirkepov M. Information and Misinformation on COVID-19: a Cross-Sectional Survey Study. J Korean Med Sci. 2020 Jul 13;35(27):e256.

https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e256

Abdul Rahim HF, Ismail SI, Hassan A, Fadl T, Khaled SM, Shockley B, et al. Willingness to participate in genome testing: a survey of public attitudes from Qatar. Journal of Human Genetics. 2020 Jul 28;1-7.

Ball HL. About research : conducting online surveys. Journal of human lactation. 2019 May 14;35(3):413-7.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0890334419848734

Agarwal V, Gupta L, Davalbhakta S, Misra DP, Agarwal V, Goel A. Prevalent fears and inadequate understanding of COVID-19 among medical undergraduates in India: results of a web-based survey. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2020 Sep;50(3):345-6.

https://doi.org/10.4997/JRCPE.2020.331

Eysenbach G, Wyatt J Using the Internet for Surveys and Health Research J Med Internet Res 2002;4(2):e13 DOI: 10.2196/jmir.4.2.e13 PMID: 12554560 PMCID: PMC1761932 Eysenbach G, Wyatt J. Using the Internet for Surveys and Health Research. J Med Internet Res. 2002 Nov 22;4(2):e13.

https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.4.2.e13

Pankti Mehta, Latika Gupta. Combined case record forms for collaborative datasets of patients and controls of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Indian J Rheumatol 2020. [Published ahead of print]. DOI: 10.4103/injr.injr_56_20 (PDF) Combined case record forms for collaborative datasets of patients and controls of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies [Internet]. ResearchGate. [cited 2020 Sep 29]. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343125493_Combined_case_record_forms_for_collaborative_datasets_of_patients_and_controls_of_idiopathic_inflammatory_myopathies

Kharbanda R, Naveen R, Misra DP, Agarwal V, Gupta L. Combined Case Record Forms for Collating Obstetric Outcomes in Rare Rheumatic Diseases. Indian Journal of Rheumatology. DOI: 10.4103/injr.injr_102_2019. Kharbanda R, Naveen R, Misra DP, Agarwal V, Gupta L. Combined Case Record Forms for Collating Obstetric Outcomes in Rare Rheumatic Diseases. Indian Journal of Rheumatology. :38.

Gupta V, Bhoyar RC, Jain A, Srivastava S, Upadhayay R, Imran M, et al. Asymptomatic reinfection in two healthcare workers from India with genetically distinct SARS-CoV-2.Clin Infect Dis 2020. doi 10.1093/cid/ciaa1451 :8.

https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/4fmrg

Choi EM, Chu DKW, Cheng PKC, Tsang DNC, Peiris M, Bausch DG, et al. In-flight transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Nov [cited 2020]. DOI: 10.3201/eid2611.203254 Choi EM, Chu DKW, Cheng PKC, Tsang DNC, Peiris M, Bausch DG, et al. Early Release - In-Flight Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 - Volume 26, Number 11-November 2020 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC. [cited 2020 Sep 28]; Available from: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/11/20-3254_article

https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2611.203254

Zhang Q, Bastard P, Liu Z, Pen JL, Moncada-Velez M, Chen J, et al. Inborn errors of type I IFN immunity in patients with life-threatening COVID-19. Science [Internet]. 2020 Sep 24 [cited 2020 Sep 28]. DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4570; Available from: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2020/09/25/science.abd4570

Kharbanda R, Naveen R, Misra DP, Agarwal V, Gupta L. Combined Case Record Forms for Collating Obstetric Outcomes in Rare Rheumatic Diseases. Indian Journal of Rheumatology. :38.

Ahmed S, Gupta L. Perception about social media use by rheumatology journals: Survey among the attendees of IRACON 2019. Indian J Rheumatol 2020;15:171-4Ahmed. Perception about social media use by rheumatology journals: Survey among the attendees of IRACON 2019 [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sep 28]. Available from: http://www.indianjrheumatol.com/article.asp?issn=0973-3698;year=2020;volume=15;issue=3;spage=171;epage=174;aulast=Ahmed

Bull S, Jamrozik E, Binik A, et al. SARS-CoV-2 challenge studies: ethics and risk minimisation. Journal of Medical Ethics Published Online First: 2020. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2020-106504

https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2020-106504

SARS-CoV-2 challenge studies: ethics and risk minimisation | Journal of Medical Ethics [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sep 28]. Available from: https://jme.bmj.com/content/early/2020/09/25/medethics-2020-106504.abstract

https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2020-106504

Williams CM, Chaturvedi R, Chakravarthy K. Cybersecurity Risks in a Pandemic. J Med Internet Res 2020;22(9):e23692. DOI: 10.2196/23692. PMID: 32897869 Williams CM, Chaturvedi R, Chakravarthy K. Cybersecurity Risks in a Pandemic. J Med Internet Res. 2020 17;22(9):e23692.

https://doi.org/10.2196/23692

Goel A, Gupta L. Social Media in the Times of COVID-19. J Clin Rheumatol [Internet]. 2020 Jun 8 [cited 20 20 Sep 28]; doi : 10.1097/RHU.0000000000001508. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437428/

Bull S, Jamrozik E, Binik A, et al SARS-CoV-2 challenge studies: ethics and risk minimisation Journal of Medical Ethics Published Online First: 2020. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2020-106504Bull S, Jamrozik E, Binik A, Parker MJ. SARS-CoV-2 challenge studies: ethics and risk minimisation. J Med Ethics. 2020 Sep 25;

https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2020-106504

McDougall RJ, Gillam L, Ko D, et al Balancing health worker well-being and duty to care: an ethical approach to staff safety in COVID-19 and beyond Journal of Medical Ethics Published Online First: 2020. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2020-106557McDougall RJ, Gillam L, Ko D, Holmes I, Delany C. Balancing health worker well-being and duty to care: an ethical approach to staff safety in COVID-19 and beyond. Journal of Medical Ethics [Internet]. 2020 Sep 25 [cited 2020 Sep 28]; Available from: https://jme.bmj.com/content/early/2020/09/25/medethics-2020-106557

https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2020-106557

Gupta L, Goel A. COVID-19 at the intersections of science, morality and practice - reflections of the physician's soul. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2020;50(3):274-6.

https://doi.org/10.4997/JRCPE.2020.311

Ahmed S, Anirvan P. The true meaning of plagiarism. Indian J Rheumatol 2020;15:155-8 Ahmed. The true meaning of plagiarism [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sep 28]. Available from: http://www.indianjrheumatol.com/article.asp?issn=0973-3698;year=2020;volume=15;issue=3;spage=155;epage=158;aulast=Ahmed

Misra DP, Agarwal V. Blaming the peer reviewer: Don't shoot the messenger!! Indian J Rheumatol 2020;15:162-4 [Internet]. [cited 2020 Sep 28]. Available from: http://www.indianjrheumatol.com/article.asp?issn=0973-3698;year=2020;volume=15;issue=3;spage=162;epage=164;aulast=Misra

Liew JW, Bhana S, Costello W, Hausmann JS, Machado PM, Robinson PC, et al. The COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance: evaluating the rapid design and implementation of an international registry against best practice. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2020 Aug 13; doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keaa483

https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa483

Hurst JR, Agarwal G, van Boven JFM on behalf of the GACD Multi-Morbidity Working Group, et al. Critical review of multimorbidity outcome measures suitable for low-income and middle-income country settings: perspectives from the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) researchers. BMJOpen 2020;10:e037079. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037079Hurst JR, Agarwal G, van Boven JFM, Daivadanam M, Gould GS, Wan-Chun Huang E, et al. Critical review of multimorbidity outcome measures suitable for low-income and middle-income country settings: perspectives from the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) researchers. BMJ Open. 2020 Sep 6;10(9):e037079.

https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037079

Bussières A, Hartvigsen J, Ferreira ML, et al. Adverse childhood experience and adult persistent pain and disability: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Rev. 2020;9:215. Published 2020. doi:10.1186/s13643-020-01474-8Bussières A, Hartvigsen J, Ferreira ML, Ferreira PH, Hancock MJ, Stone LS, et al. Adverse childhood experience and adult persistent pain and disability: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. Syst Rev. 2020 Sep 17;9(1):215.

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01474-8

Edridge, A.W.D., Kaczorowska, J., Hoste, A.C.R. et al. Seasonal coronavirus protective immunity is short-lasting. Nat Med (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1083-1Edridge AWD, Kaczorowska J, Hoste ACR, Bakker M, Klein M, Loens K, et al. Seasonal coronavirus protective immunity is short-lasting. Nature Medicine. 2020 Sep 14;1-3.

Nakatani, H., Katsuno, K. & Urabe, H. Global health landscape challenges triggered by COVID-19. Inflamm Regener 40, 34 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41232-020-00144-5Nakatani H, Katsuno K, Urabe H. Global health landscape challenges triggered by COVID-19. Inflammation and Regeneration. 2020 Sep 15;40(1):34.

https://doi.org/10.1186/s41232-020-00144-5

Jahangiri M, Cousins R, Gharibi V. Let's get back to work: Preventive biological cycle management of COVID-19 in the workplace. Work. 2020;66(4):713-716. doi: 10.3233/WOR-203217. PMID: 32925132. M J, R C, V G. Let's get back to work: Preventive biological cycle management of COVID-19 in the workplace [Internet]. Vol. 66, Work (Reading, Mass.). Work

https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-203217

[cited 2020 Sep 28]. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32925132/

Regli A, Sommerfield A, von Ungern-Sternberg BS. The role of fit testing N95/FFP2/FFP3 masks: a narrative review. Anaesthesia. 2020. doi: 10.1111/anae.15261. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32932556.Regli A, Sommerfield A, von Ungern-Sternberg BS. The role of fit testing N95/FFP2/FFP3 masks: a narrative review. Anaesthesia. 2020 Sep 15;

https://doi.org/10.1111/anae.15261

Stubbs T, Kring W, Laskaridis C, Kentikelenis A, Gallagher K. Whatever it takes? The global financial safety net, Covid-19, and developing countries. World Dev. 2021;137:105171. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105171Stubbs T, Kring W, Laskaridis C, Kentikelenis A, Gallagher K. Whatever it takes? The global financial safety net, Covid-19, and developing countries. World Dev. 2021 Jan;137:105171.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105171

Agarwal V, Sharma S, Gupta L, et al. COVID-19 and Psychological Disaster Preparedness - An Unmet Need [published online ahead of print, 2020]. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2020;1-4. doi:10.1017/dmp.2020.219Agarwal V, Sharma S, Gupta L, Misra D, Davalbhakta S, Agarwal V, et al. COVID-19 and Psychological Disaster Preparedness - An Unmet Need. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. :1-4.

https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.219

Kimhi S, Marciano H, Eshel Y, Adini B. Recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic: Distress and resilience. Int J Disaster Risk Reduct. 2020;50:101843. doi:10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101843Kimhi S, Marciano H, Eshel Y, Adini B. Recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic: Distress and resilience. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2020 Nov 1;50:101843.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101843


Abstract views: 364
PDF Downloads: 146
Published
2020-09-27
How to Cite
1.
Sanjeevkumar Gaur P, Gupta L. CHANGING RESEARCH PARADIGM IN THE FACE OF A GLOBAL PANDEMIC: FORESEEABLE IMPACT AND ADAPTIVE MEASURES IN ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN THE FUTURE. Proc Shevchenko Sci Soc Med Sci [Internet]. 2020Sep.27 [cited 2021Sep.18];62(2). Available from: https://mspsss.org.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/317