Keywords: Hand sanitizer, antiseptic, wet wipes, hand microbiome, antimicrobial activity, hand hygiene


Introduction. Hand sanitizers and antibacterial wet wipes usage are one of the essential (after hand washing) preventive methods for fecal-oral, and airborne transmitted infections, COVID-19 in particular. WHO and MoH of Ukraine recommend regular use of hand sanitizers during the world pandemic. Nevertheless, in Ukraine, unlike European Union countries, takes place the lack of legislative framework, which should ensure effective control of commonly available antiseptic products antibacterial or antiviral activity.  On the contrary, during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, MOH of Ukraine has simplified the registration procedures for the new disinfectants, which raises the chance of ineffective antiseptics appearance due to its growing demand.

Objectives. The research aimed to test the antibacterial and antifungal activity of commonly available Ukrainian hand sanitizers and antibacterial wipes.

Methods. Thirty-six samples were tested, among them 19 (52.8%) antibacterial wet wipes and 17 (47.2%) hand sanitizers, which include 5 (13.9%) gel antiseptics and 12 (33.3%) spray antiseptics.

Sample names were next: 

  • Wet wipes: «Naturelle», «Smile with alcohol», «Smile baby», «Smile with D-panthenol», «Smile with plantago juice», «Viva Fruts», «Zeffir», «Hliantz», «Chicolino», «Green Way», «Lili», «Novax», «Ozon», «Ruta», «Superfresh», «Supero», «Dobryi Dotyk», «Snizhna Panda», «Siela»;  
  • Gel antiseptics: «Vital Charm», «Wash Your Body», «Doctor Biokon», «Manorm», «Aromat»
  • Spray antiseptics: «Altamed», «Colour intense», «Pro Ecolek», «Green Way», «Lucky Day», «Manorm», «Wash Your Body», «Antyseptychna ridyna», «Argenvit», «Aniospray», «Sribna Voda», «Tsilytel’»

For antibacterial and antifungal activity observation agar well diffusion method was used, with testing on the following reference cultures and clinical isolates of microorganisms (from patients with nosocomial infections): Escherichia coli АТСС 25922; Staphylococcus aureus АТСС 26923 (F-49); Candida albicans АТСС 885/653;  Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (F-51, Escherichia coli №5; Candida albicans №60; Candida non-albicans №67; Raoultella terrigena №1; Staphylococcus lentus № 19; Brevundimonas vesicularis №111; Citrobacter sedlakii №37; Pseudomonas aeruginosa №13; Enterococcus spp. №161; Aerococcus viridans №26.

ResultsAmong the specimens studied, 36.1% (n=13) did not have required antimicrobial activity. From gel antiseptics samples 60.0% (n=3) were partially or completely inactive, from spray antiseptics – 50.0% (n=6). So, every second hand sanitizer can not be used for infectious diseases spreading prevention. Among the wet wipes samples 21.0% (n=4) have shown insufficient antimicrobial activity.

Conclusions. Proper handwashing with correct technique usage remains one of the most crucial methods for fecal-oral, and airborne transmitted diseases prevention. Including the research results, it is better to use hand sanitizers, and antibacterial wet wipes produced by well-known brands and bought in pharmacies, with preference to alcohol-based gel antiseptics, as the efficacy of active ones was the highest.


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Lekhniuk N, Mykytiuk S, Konechna R, Shykula R, Korniychuk O, Konechnyi Y. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND FUNGICIDAL ACTIVITY OF COMMONLY AVAILABLE HAND SANITIZERS AND ANTIBACTERIAL WET WIPES ON UKRAINIAN MARKET. Proc Shevchenko Sci Soc Med Sci [Internet]. 2020Apr.14 [cited 2020Aug.15];59(1). Available from: