PERIODONTAL DISEASES AND DENTOALVEOLAR ANOMALIES AND DEFORMATIONS IN PATIENTS OF DIFFERENT AGES (STATE OF THE PROBLEM AND WAYS TO RESOLVE IT)

  • O. Hodovanyi Danylo Halytskyi Lviv National Medical University
  • A. Martovlos Danylo Halytskyi Lviv National Medical University
  • O. Hodovana Danylo Halytskyi Lviv National Medical University
Keywords: orthodontic pathology, gingivitis, periodontitis, interconnection, complex treatment algorithm, literature review

Abstract

Dentoalveolar anomalies and diseases of periodontal tissues are major main dental diseases and are characterized by high prevalence among different groups of the population. According to the WHO, about 50% of adolescents experience periodontal diseases accompanied by dental anomalies. Therefore, the lack of timely orthodontic care can lead to an increase in both the intensity of the carious process and the severity of periodontal diseases (gingivitis, periodontitis). According to various sources, in Ukraine, the prevalence of dentoalveolar anomalies generally constitutes 45-87%, of which 50% are due to anomalies of dentition and position of individual teeth. According to the WHO, the prevalence of dentoalveolar anomalies is 68%, and the excessively high level of periodontal tissue diseases is determined already at the age of 15-19 (55-89%), and at the age of 35-44, it reaches 65-98%.

The article deals with causes, significance, and role of inflammatory and dystrophic-inflammatory complications that appear in periodontal tissues among patients with dentoalveolar anomalies. The influence of functional overload of teeth groups on the development of periodontal pathology was estimated. Orthodontic treatment of teeth dentoalveolar anomalies and deformations is a long and complex process requiring proper complex treatment, which includes two interrelated periods: the period of active orthodontic treatment and the period of retaining treatment results. The first stage of orthodontic treatment involves obtaining a functional, morphological, and aesthetic optimum and the harmonic state of the facial skeleton as a whole. The purpose of the second treatment stage is to obtain myodynamic equilibrium and physiological functioning of the reconstructed dental-jaw system. In particular, its functioning excludes the probability of relapse development. Consequently, patients with periodontal disease who seek an orthodontist doctor can be divided into two main groups. The first group includes patients with hereditary or predetermined prenatal factors of bite anomalies and present periodontal diseases. The second group includes patients, in whom primary indications for orthodontic treatment revealed pathological teeth position due to one or another periodontal disease. In this review, the first group of patients was examined. The algorithm of the complex treatment of patients with dentoalveolar anomalies and deformations with periodontal diseases was traced.

Conclusion. An adequate interdisciplinary complex of orthodontic, orthopedic, therapeutic, implantology and periodontological measures at the modern level allows providing optimal conditions for maintaining a healthy periodontal complex, as well as to improve the aesthetic looks, which is necessary for a modern person who seeks to improve the quality of his/her life.

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2019-06-24
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Hodovanyi O, Martovlos A, Hodovana O. PERIODONTAL DISEASES AND DENTOALVEOLAR ANOMALIES AND DEFORMATIONS IN PATIENTS OF DIFFERENT AGES (STATE OF THE PROBLEM AND WAYS TO RESOLVE IT). Proc Shevchenko Sci Soc Med Sci [Internet]. 2019Jun.24 [cited 2022Jan.17];55(1):10-. Available from: https://mspsss.org.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/2