• Roksolana Symivska Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine
Keywords: endocardium, rat, pathology, opioid


The average life expectancy in modern society is markedly increased, due to the development of experimental and clinical medicine. However, it is proved that over the last 10 years cardiovascular diseases have become the leading cause of mortality worldwide and account for 30 % of all cases and 45% of all non-communicable causes of death. Pathology of the cardiovascular system is the most common, tends to increase, often leading to disability and mortality of population in young working age, and is an important medical and social problem.

This article examines a number of works concerning the study of the valvular apparatus of the heart in norm and described the patterns in terms of exposure to pathogenic factors. Discovered a large number of studies, considering the disorders of the heart associated with valve damage congenital or acquired origin. Work is characterized by covering a controversial issue on the presence of blood vessels in the heart valves in norm. Evaluated the influence of advanced technology development and invasive research methods that makes it easier to study the morphology of valves of the human heart and experimental animals. In connection with the severity of the non-invasive sampling of histological preparations of heart valves human is much more easy and rational is the study of mammals, anatomy and morphology of the structure of the valve which does not differ from man.

The problem of adequate analgesia and the use of opioids remains unresolved and is the focus of specialists. In Ukraine, according to official data of the Ministry of health and Ministry of internal affairs, there are 150 thousand drug users, among them about 70% using opioids, mostly aged up to 35 years. This article analyzes the work of researchers describe the changes of the bodies of drug users at both microscopic and ultramtramadol level. However, it remains unclear what changes in the organs cause the opioid intermediaries, since many researchers attribute changes in the internal organs of drug addicts with the lifestyle and related toxic substances that are often formed due to improper manufacture of the narcotic. The endothelium is a target for the effects of various therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, data on the impact of opioid centerpiece on the heart, namely the morphological changes of the valvular apparatus of the heart under the influence of opioids not, some studies are in the nature of observations and the available conclusions are not sufficiently substantiated.



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