• Vasyl Horoshko Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine
  • Ulyana Lushch Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine
Keywords: organ transplantation, phenomenology, ethics, Heidegger


Introduction. In view of the increasing medical possibilities to intervene the human body as well
as the possibilities of using body parts in research and commercial enterprises, the human body
is considered as a useful instrument and even a marketable commodity.
Aim. To defi ne the specifi city of the relationship of the human being to his body and the relationship
between the human beings in the world appealing to phenomenological and personalist
perspective on the ethics of organ transplantation.
Materials and methods. Analysis, comparison, description, generalization, phenomenological
Results and discussion. The human body became an object of consumption, possession and
investment. Thus, the human body is objectivated and alienated of the human Self. Jean Baudrillard
distinguished four models of body: 1) animal – as a set of instincts; 2) robot – as a labour
force; 3) mannequin – a body that has value and produces sexuality; 4) corpse – as the human
organism examined by medicine. Hence, the human body is interpreted as an object of manipulation
and ownership.
The owner of the human body is defi ned in three ways: 1) religious – God is the owner of human
body; 2) secular – a person owns his own body; 3) socialist – society owns human body.
Personalism interprets the human person as the integrity of body and soul. To be human is also
to be with others. Martin Buber distinguishes social relationship and interhuman relationship.
Martin Heidegger defi nes the human as Dasein – “being-there”, being in the world under particular
circumstances and involved in daily activities. The core of human existence is “being-inthe-
world” through our body. Yet, Dasein is only possible due to Mitdasein – being and working
together with others. We are “attuned” together in the world: we interact with others, feel empathy
and compassion. We do not feel the other’s pain but we feel it with him and we sense an
urge to help him. From this perspective, organ donation is not an issue of ownership or a trade,
but the “gift of life” we can offer to others or receive from them.
Conclusion. The body enables our “being-in-the-world” and “being-in-the-world-with-others”.
Gifts are important for establishing and maintaining moral relationships between people. Therefore,
donorship should be regarded as gift-giving in the context of our attunement with the others.


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How to Cite
Horoshko V, Lushch U. THE HUMAN BODY FROM PHENOMENOLOGICAL AND PERSONALIST PERSPECTIVE: APPEALING TO THE DONORSHIP ISSUE. Proc Shevchenko Sci Soc Med Sci [Internet]. 2017Dec.29 [cited 2022Jul.2];50(2):101-4. Available from: