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Оригінальні дослідження: клінічні науки Research: clinical sciences


UDC: 612.67:577.91:612.6.05


REJUVENATION OF A BODY: DISCOVERY LEADING TO THE DRASTIC CHANGES OF GERONTOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES (REVIEW OF PERSONAL RESEARCHES)


Volodymyr Monastyrskyi


Danylo Halytskyi Lviv National Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine,

monastyrsky@ukr.net


Only the one who clearly defines the meaning of words

can discover the truth


Автор відкрив тромбін-плазмінову систему (ТПС) та два, виконувані її підсистемами, фундамен- тальні взаємопротилежні фізіологічні процеси – біокоагуляцію (цито-гісто-гемокоагуляцію) та бі- орегенерацію (цито-гісто-геморегенерацію). Він виявив, що біокоагуляція функціонує як коагуля- ційно-гіпотрофічний механізм зі зниженням усіх механізмів трофіки, тому її кінцевим результатом (в нормі та при патології) є дегенеративно-дистрофічні пошкодження клітин і органів, зменшення кількості їхніх структур. А біорегенерація – функціонує як регенераційно-нормотрофічний меха- нізм, тому її результатом є усунення цих пошкоджень, відновлення всіх механізмів трофіки, по- силення клітинної та внутрішньоклітинної регенерації, збільшення кількості структур. Водночас з’ясував, що саме за допомогою цих двох процесів ТПС реалізує генетичну програму вікового роз- витку, включно з прикінцевим його етапом – фізіологічним старінням організму. Крім того, автор довів, що біорегенерація є саме тим фізіологічним процесом, який, за певних умов, може омоло- дити структуру та функції всіх органів і систем старого організму до рівня їхнього стану в юності і показав, за яких умов це можливо, як у похилому і старечому віці можна було б досягти потрібних умов. Правдивість цих даних підтверджена практикою – на їхній підставі створено спосіб системно- го омолодження старого організму, який в експерименті на тваринах виявився дуже ефективним.


Ключові слова: віковий розвиток, старіння, тромбін, плазмін, коагуляція, регенерація.


The author has discovered thrombin-plasmin system (TPS) and two processes performed by its subsystems being fundamentally opposed, internally contradictory physiological processes – biological coagulation (cyto-histo-hemocoagulation) functioning as coagulation-hypotrophic mechanism (with a reduction of all the mechanisms of trophism), therefore, its final result (both in normal state and in the event of pathology) is a degenerative and dystrophic damage to cells and organs with a reduction in the number of their structures, and bioregeneration (cyto-histo-hemoregeneration) functioning as a regenerative-normotrophic mechanism, which, therefore, results in elimination of these damages, recovery of all trophic mechanisms, enhancement of cellular and intracellular regeneration with increase in the number of structures (the discovery has been registered). With the help of these two processes, TPS performs many vital functions of regulatory nature in the human body. However, the most important thing is that owing to these two processes, TPS implements a genetic program of all three stages of lifespan development of human body. This provided the author with an opportunity to substantiate two fundamentally new gerontological theories – coagulation-regenerative theory of lifespan development and coagulation- hypotrophic theory of physiological ageing of the human body. At the same time, the author has provided rationalization for regenerative-normotrophic theory of rejuvenation of the human body, since he has determined that bioregeneration is a fundamental physiological process which under certain conditions can rejuvenate the structure and functions of all organs and systems of the old human body to the level of its state at the young age, and has shown under what conditions it is possible and in what way the desired conditions could be achieved in old and senile age. The faithfulness of these gerontological theories has been confirmed in practice – on their basis the method of consistent rejuvenation of the old human body has been established, which appeared to be very effective in animal experiments.


Key words: lifespan development, ageing, thrombin, plasmin, coagulation, regeneration.

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Оригінальні дослідження: клінічні науки Research: clinical sciences


The search for rejuvenation methods of old body has probably begun in ancient times, apparently, immediately after people realized that their body tended to age. However, until now, no one managed to find it.


Moreover, gerontologists believe that it is generally impossible to rejuvenate the old human body to the level of its state at a young age. This belief is based on data that ageing of the human body is the final stage of lifespan development, and it is a genetically programmed and determined process that goes in one direction following the scheme: youth mature age old age, and it will never be possible to reverse this process in the opposite direction.


But based on this fact only, it is impossible to state that the nature has no real possibility to rejuvenate old human body to the level of its state at the young age, since other options may exist that do not require the reverse process of human body development.


Review if these possibilities is the basic issue this article dwells upon. The search for answers to the following three questions have been conducted: 1. Is there a real process in the human body able to rejuvenate the old human body to its state at the young age? 2. If such process exists, under what conditions is it able to perform such rejuvenation? 3. How can the desired condition be achieved in old and senile age?


It is clear that a convincing answer to these questions can be found only by investigating the essence of three processes – lifespan development, ageing and its rejuvenation.


LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT. It is well known that starting with ovum fertilization and until the end of individual life of the human body, successive changes denoted by the term

«development of the human body» occur. The nature clearly divided this process into two periods – prenatal, or embryogenesis period, and postnatal, or the period of lifespan development of the human body.


Thus, lifespan development is the period of the human body development from birth and until the end of its individual life. Though less distinctly, nature, in its turn, divided it into three stages – stage of progressive

development (growth of the human body), stage of stable development (mature age) and stage of regressive development (ageing of the human body).


The described natural division of the human body’s development can be represented in the form of the following biological formula. Development of the human body = embryogenesis+ lifespan development: growth of the human body + mature age + ageing of the human body.


Now that the meaning of the term «lifespan development» has been defined, it is necessary to find out what is being developed: structure or function?


At the first sight, this question seems odd, since it is well known that there is no structure without function as well as there is no function without a respective structure. Therefore, development of the human body is always the development of both its structure and functions simultaneously. However, this issue deserves attention for two reasons: first, because when the human body develops the primary thing is still the formation of its structures, and second, because gerontologists somehow do not properly consider the fact of structures’ precedence. Thus, lifespan development of the human body is the development of its structures primarily. This fact makes it possible to clearly answer the crucial question, which is essential for the establishment of real mechanism of lifespan development, particularly: What is the main result of lifespan development?


Now there is no doubt that the result of lifespan development is the change during every stage of its mass of living matter (the number of structures of pre-organ level of organ organization) following the scheme: increase relative stability reduction.


Thus, during the first and the third stages of lifespan development the amount of living matter changes in the opposite direction (increases decreases). This fact proves convincingly that lifespan development of the human body performs not one but two processes. Since lifespan development is a fundamental physiological process, those two processes that perform it, must also be fundamental physiological processes, and are

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Оригінальні дослідження: клінічні науки Research: clinical sciences


sure to be opposed, internally contradictory – one of them must cause increase in the number of human body structures, and the second, on the contrary – causes their reduction.


Unity and struggle of these two processes is able to implement the genetic program of lifespan development of the human body and perform all its three stages. This means that for disclosure of lifespan development mechanism of the human body, it was first necessary to discover these two processes. Thus, the question arises: Have these processes been discovered already?


In this respect, it should be noted that gerontologists have long argued that lifespan development occurs by two processes, not one. They even created a study on them authored by Academician V.V. Frolkis. He believed that in the early stages of evolution, two processes appeared – «ageing» and «anti- ageing» (vitauсt) and stated that these two internally contradictory processes ensure all stages of lifespan development, including its final stage – ageing of the human body. Based on this study, he created an adaptive-and- regulatory theory of lifespan development, the constituent of which he believed to be the genetic and regulatory hypothesis of human body’s ageing [13].


However, now there is every reason to state that there is no special separate ageing and anti-ageing process in nature, they were formed neither at an early stage nor at any other stage of evolution. Therefore, the study above and, thus, theory created on the basis thereof, are wrong and ones that determined the development of gerontology in the wrong direction. [8]


Along with this, it has appeared that those two processes performing lifespan development of the human body have already been discovered. Moreover, that complex enzyme (thrombin- plasmin) system that performs them has also been discovered. These, however, were not gerontologists who discovered them but coagulologists [5, 14, 15].


That is why it is necessary to highlight the current understanding of thrombin-plasmin system in order to outline brief history of its discovery, and the study of biocoagulation and bioregeneration.

Thrombin-plasmin system (TPS). The results of multi-year research in animal experiments enabled me to establish (discover) the following: first, TPS is a very complex structural enzyme system that has two subsystems of equal value – subsystem of thrombin and subsystem of plasmin (Fig.); second, TPS subsystems operate constantly in all the major biological media (MBM) – in the cytoplasm of various cells of the human body, in the interstitial connective tissue (ICT) and in blood, and third, TPS in all these media performs two fundamentally opposed and internally contradictory physiological processes – biocoagulation (cyto-histo- hemocoagulation), which is conducted by the subsystem of thrombin and bioregeneration (cyto-histo-hemoregeneration), performed by the subsystem of plasmin [4, 14, 15].


With the help of these two processes in the human body, TPS performs many vital functions of regulatory nature, which provides grounds to believe that there is another – fifth main regulatory system of the human body, on equal terms with genetic, immune, endocrine and nervous systems [4].


Schematic representation of the structure of thrombin-plasmin system and the processes of biocoagulation and bioregeneration performed by it solid lines – denote the influence, transformation and other modifications; stipple lines – indicate, in which organs, structures, or media the aforementioned modifications of proteins are taken into consideration


The history of TPS discovery. The discovery of TPS and the two processes – biocoagulation and bioregeneration, performed by it, lasted almost 150 years. Its history can be divided into two main periods: the first period which lasted almost 100 years, and during which many researchers around the world made a large number of so-called intermediate coagulation findings that laid the foundation for the discovery of two coagulation systems – coagulation (system of thrombin) and fibrinolytic (system of plasmin), and the second period that lasted nearly 50 years, during which I made another series of intermediate discoveries that led to the discovery of actual TPS as one of the major regulatory systems of the human body. [5].

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Оригінальні дослідження: клінічні науки Research: clinical sciences


THROMBIN-PLASMIN SYSTEM

of cells, interstitial connective tissue(ICT) and blood


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Subsystem of THROMBIN Subsystem of PLASMIN


stage

stage

Prothrombin Plasminogen

B Activat.


inhibit.


Activat.

1st

inhibit. B

1st

i

i

THROMBIN PLASMIN


o

o

? Proteins ?

of cells, ICT, blood


c

r

Denaturation Renaturation


stage

stage

?

Actin

o

e

Of cells ?


F- actin G-actin

2nd

2nd

a Fibrinogen g

g

e

of blood, ICT


u

n

Fibrin


l

e

Products of fibrin degradation


a

r

Colloids

of cells, ICT, and blood

Gel Sol

t Microcirculation a

stage

i

Decrease in volumes

stage

t

Increase in volumes

o Nervous system i

3rd

n

o

Denaturation of cellular enzymes

Reduction

of trophic

effects

Enlargement

of trophic

effects

3rd

Renaturation of cellular enzymes


Denaturation of organella proteins


Lowering of the level of trophicity


Increase in trophicity level


n

Regeneration of organella proteins


Coagulation (degenerative)


Dystrophic (hypotrophic)


Regeneration

changes of structure and functions

changes of the structure changes of structure & and functions of the main functions of the MBM

biological media (MBM)

of biological media on cellular subcellular and organ level


Discovery of TPS and thorough study of its structure and functions enabled me to actually create a new science – biological coagulolo-

gy, which is the science of two fundamentally opposed and internally contradictory physio- logical processes – biocoagulation (cyto-his-

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to-hemocoagulation) and bioregeneration (cyto-histo-hemoregeneration), the science that studies physiological, pathogenetic, and sanogenetic role of this very complex enzyme system [4, 8].


Study on biocoagulation and bioregener- ation. Since TPS is a system, which has two equal-worth subsystems – subsystem of thrombin and subsystem of plasmin, func- tioning constantly in all MBM, this is in these media where it performs two processes – bio- coagulation (cyto-histo-hemocoagulation) and bioregeneration (cyto-histo-hemoregen- eration) [4, 14, 15].


Reasons, development mechanisms, results and outcomes of biocoagulation and bioregen- eration processes have been already investi- gated thoroughly, and the respective findings were outlined sufficiently in my previous pub- lications [4, 8, 10], thus, I would like to pro- vide only brief review of them here.


Biological coagulation (cyto-histo-hemoco- agulation) is a very complex multi-link throm- bin-dependent physiological process, which can be divided into three main stages of de- velopment.


The first stage is the stage of thrombogen- esis. In other words, the stage of generating thrombin in all MBM – in the cytoplasm of var- ious cells of the human body, in the interstitial connective tissue (stroma of organs) and in the blood.


This stage of biocoagulation in itself is a very complex process, which involves: prothrombin

zymogen that can convert into an active en- zyme – thrombin as well as significant amounts of activators – substances of protein nature that cause conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and inhibitors counteracting this transformation.


The severity of thrombogenesis depends on the prevalence of activators or inhibitors, thus, it can be compensated, subcompensated, or decompensated. Depending on the degree of decompensation, larger or smaller number of thrombin is formed, which in turn, determines the severity of the process in general.


The stage of thrombogenesis is the main link of the mechanism of biocoagulation devel- opment process, without which all its subse-

quent, secondary links and stages do not de- velop, thus, the development of this process is generally impossible without it.


The second stage is the stage of the change in the structure of different proteins of MBM. During this phase, thrombin formed in the first stage entails the following three types of changes in the structure of proteins: 1) in the cells – actin polymerization, i.e. transi- tion of G-actin to F-actin; 2) in the blood and ICT – conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin; 3) in all MBM – denaturation, i.e. changing the spa- tial three-dimensional structure of all other proteins.


The third is the stage of damaging cells and organs. It has been found that during this stage of change in the structure and func- tions of different proteins, which are precon- ditioned in the second stage by the action of thrombin, cause, on the one hand, develop- ment of so-called primary direct coagulation (inherently degenerative) damages, and on the other hand, decrease of all four mecha- nisms of trophism – cellular (enzymatic), cir- culatory, endocrine and nervous, leading to the development of secondary indirect coagu- lation, inherently degenerative damages. The development mechanism of all links of this biocoagulation stage as well as the previous two has already been deciphered in details and outlined in my previous publications [4, 8, 10].


Thus, it has been determined that biocoagu- lation is a very complex fundamental throm- bin-dependent physiological process that functions as the coagulation-hypotrophic mechanism with a reduction of all four mech- anisms of trophism, therefore, under normal conditions its final result is physiological de- generative and dystrophic damages to various structures of the human body (molecules of proteins, subcellular structures, cells, tissues and organs), and under conditions of pathol- ogy pathological degenerative and dystro- phic damages. The damages I have described under the term of «coagulation dystro- phies» [6].


Biological regeneration (cyto-histo-he- moregeneration) is also a very complex multi- link, but plasmin-dependent process, which can also be divided into three main stages of development.

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The first is the stage of plasminogenesis,

i.e. the stage of forming plasmin in all MBM – in the cytoplasm of various cells, ICT (stroma of organs) in the blood.


This stage of bioregeneraton is also a very complex process in itself, which involves plas- minogen – zymogen that can convert into an active enzyme – plasmin, and a significant number of activators – substances of protein nature that cause conversion of plasminogen to plasmin and inhibitors counteracting this transformation.


The severity of plasminogenesis depends on prevalence of its activators or inhibitors, so it can be compensated, subcompensated, or decompensated. In addition, depending on the degree of its decompensation, larger or smaller number of plasmin is formed, which in turn, determines the essence and severity of the process in general.


The stage of plasminogenesis is the main link of the mechanism of bioregeneration de- velopment process, without which all its sub- sequent (secondary) links and stages do not develop, thus, the development of this pro- cess is generally impossible without it.


The second is the stage of pre-regenerative and reconstructive processes, during which the following processes occur: elimination of de- generative and dystrophic damages of organs, reconstruction of the structure and functions of inversely damaged and hydrolysis of irrevers- ibly damaged proteins in all MBM, restoration of all four mechanisms of trophism and en- hancement of the new proteins synthesis.


The third is the stage of actual regener- ative and restorative processes, i.e. the stage of restoration of structure and func- tions of human body organs and systems by increasing intracellular and cellular regenera- tion. The development mechanism of all links of this bioregeneration stage as well as the previous two, have been also deciphered in detail and outlined in my previous publications [4, 8, 10].


Thus, it has been established that bioregen- eration is a very complex fundamental plas- min-dependent physiological process that functions as a regenerative and normo- trophic mechanism and, therefore, its final

result is elimination of all forms of degener- ative damages, restoration of all the mecha- nisms of trophism and full restoration of the structure and functions of damaged organs.


However, the following should be particularly emphasized: subsystem of plasmin performs bioregeneration process primarily under nor- mal conditions when the process of plasmin- ogenesis is always compensated, and in case of pathology, the final result of this process depends on the degree of its compensation: in case of compensated and subcompensat- ed plasminogenesis – bioregeneration process develops, and in case of decompensated plasminogenesis, completely different pro- cess evolves the process of pathologi- cal proteolysis with severe, often fatal organ damages [8, 10].


Biocoagulation and bioregeneration function simultaneously and continuously throughout the human body life – starting with ovum fer- tilization and until the end of individual life, and noted before they facilitate performance by TPS system of many vital functions of reg- ulatory nature [4]. The most important thing, however, is that biocoagulation and bioregen- eration are two fundamentally opposed and internally contradictory physiological process- es able to perform all three stages of lifespan development. Therefore, one may state that these are processes used by TPS to im- plement the genetic program of human body lifespan development [3, 8, 10].


However, one needs to remember that all pro- cesses occurring in the human body, including processes of biocoagulation and bioregenera- tion, have two levels of activity – «basic» and

«trans-basic» [8, 10].


Basic activity level of all processes is a ge- netically programmed determined level, i.e. the level determined by genetic programs; it is stable for a long period and changes only when transferring from one stage of lifespan development to another.


These basic activity levels of biocoagulation and bioregeneration processes during lifespan development ensure a basic level of structural and functional homeostasis, i.e. provide dy- namic sustainability of the structure and func- tions of all human body organs and systems [11]. At that, the level of this sustainability

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during the first stage of lifespan development is the highest, and during the third stage, it is the lowest.


Trans-basic level of process activity is a lev- el determined by various factors of external and internal media of the human body. By in- fluencing correspondingly various regulatory systems, they change (increase or decrease) this level of processes activity and that is why it changes quickly, depending on the needs of the human body at any given moment.


The doctrine of basic and trans-basic activity level of all human body processes enables to take another look at those two processes that ensure lifespan development of the human body, since it gives grounds to assume that only basic levels of activity of biocoagula- tion and bioregeneration processes play a crucial role in the mechanism of human body lifespan development, while trans-basic level of their activity is only the conditions of this process development.


At every stage, the genetic program of lifes- pan development determines the change in the ratio of basic levels of biocoagulation and bioregeneration processes activity by the following principle: at the first stage – the program determines the prevalence of basic activity level of bioregeneration process en- suring progressive development (growth of the human body), at the second stage – the prevalence of either of these two processes is absent, which is represented in the form of sustainable development (mature age), and at the third stage – the program determines the prevalence of basic activity level of bio- coagulation process, which ensures regressive development (ageing).


The foregoing gives grounds to assert that ba- sic activity level of bioregeneraton process at the first stage of lifespan development, due to its prevalence over basic activity level of biocoagulation process, plays the role of the human body growth mechanism, where- as the basic activity level of biocoagulation process at the third stage of lifespan develop- ment, due to its prevalence over bioregener- ation process, serves as the mechanism of ageing.


In addition, and this should be particularly emphasized on, at the third stage of lifespan

development both basic and trans-basic activity levels of bioregeneration process under certain conditions (in case of its prevalence over the process of biocoagulation) can serve as a mechanism for real systematic rejuvenation of the human body.


Thus, the discovery of biocoagulation and bioregeneration process along with modern achievements of other natural sciences, particularly genetics the study of the ‘program support’ of the human body [1, 10], normal physiology the study of homeostasis [11] and the study of basic and trans-basic activity levels of all processes [ 10], and pathological physiology the study of aetiology and pathogenesis [2] gave me an opportunity to prove the coagulation and regenerative theory of human body lifespan development [3, 8, 10], which defines its cause, direct cause and conditions of development, as well as development mechanisms, results, and outcomes. The following framework may represent the essence of this theory, which meets all criteria of truthfulness set forth in my monograph [10].


Coagulation and regenerative theory of human body lifespan development (framework)


Cause of lifespan development is post-natal fragment of human body genetic program.


Direct cause – the determined prevalence of basic activity level of one of the two processes at every stage of lifespan development – bio- coagulation or bioregeneration, or the absence of such prevalence, has been programmed.


Development conditions are various factors of internal and external media, which can af- fect in a certain manner the result of the pro- cess.


Development mechanism is a coagula- tion and regeneration mechanism, which consists of two fundamental processes – bi- ological coagulation (cyto-histo-hemoco- agulation), based on coagulation-hypotrophic mechanism with a reduction of all trophism mechanisms leading to degenerative and dys- trophic damage of cells and organs with a reduction in the number of their structures, and biological regeneration (cyto-his- to-hemoregeneration), based on regenera-

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tive-normotrophic mechanism that leads to elimination (liquidation) of degenerative and dystrophic damage, restoration of all trophic mechanisms and formation of new structures.


The result depends on the following: at the first stage (growth of the human body) – the programmed determined prevalence of biore- generation process, at the second stage (ma- ture age) – prevalence is absent; at the third stage (ageing of the human body) – the prev- alence of biocoagulation process.


Result is the change during every stage of lifespan development in the amount of (mass) living matter following the scheme: increase relative stability decrease.


Outcomes are the change in functions of organs and systems of the human body and their adaptive and compensatory abilities ac- cording to the change in the number and qual- ity of their structures.


AGEING OF THE HUMAN BODY. Modern

achievements of gerontology give grounds to differentiate three types of human body age- ing: 1) physiological; 2) physiological, but intensified and accelerated; 3) pathological, though only physiological ageing of the human body will be reviewed in this article (short –

«ageing of the human body»).


Ageing of the human body is the manifesta- tion of consistent accumulation of age-relat- ed damage to the structure and functions of organs and systems of the human body with simultaneous decrease of their adaptive and compensatory abilities.


That is why determining the essence of age- ing comes down to examining causes, devel- opment mechanisms, results and outcomes of this phenomenon. Thus, it has become pos- sible to investigate all these data on ageing only after discovering TPS and two process- es performed by its subsystems, since it has been found that the development mechanism of one of them – biocoagulation process – be- comes a development mechanism of human body physiological ageing in old and senile age, due to its genetically determined preva- lence over bioregeneration process [3, 8, 10].


This fact gave me ground to justify coagu- lation-hypotrophic theory of human body

ageing [3, 9, 10], the essence of which can also be represented in the form of the follow- ing framework.


Coagulation and hypotrophic theory of physiological ageing of the human body (framework)


Cause of ageing is the final fragment of the genetic program of human body lifespan de- velopment.


Direct cause – the determined prevalence at the third stage of lifespan development of basic activity level of biocoagulation process over basic activity level of bioregeneration process has been programmed.


Development conditions are various factors of internal and external media capable of hav- ing noticeable effect on the result.


Development mechanism is a coagula- tion and hypotrophic mechanism. It en- sures the development of direct primary co- agulative, inherently degenerative damages and secondary indirect coagulative, inherently dystrophic damage to cells and organs.


Result very slow accumulation of age-relat- ed physiological degenerative and compensa- tory damage to organs.


Outcomes reduction of functions of human body organs and systems with simultaneous de- crease in their adaptive and compensatory abili- ties, the development of age-related pathology.


This theory of physiological ageing enables to provide the following three definitions – the most comprehensive one, slightly shorter and short [10].


Ageing of the human body is the manifes- tation of gradual, very slow increase in de- generative and dystrophic damage to organs of coagulation and hypotrophic genesis in old and senile age with the decrease in their func- tions and adaptive-compensatory abilities due to genetically determined predominance in old and senile age of basic activity level of biocoagulation process over basic activity level of bioregeneration process.


Ageing of the human body is the man- ifestation of gradual, very slow increase in

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genetically determined age-related coagu- lation dystrophy of organs in old and senile age with the decrease in their functions and adaptive-compensatory abilities.


Ageing of the human body is the manifes- tation of genetically determined age-related coagulation dystrophy of organs devel- opment.


Thus, ageing of the human body is not a de- structive process as stated by V.V.Frolkis [12]; this is the process of age-related coagula- tion dystrophy development.


HUMAN BODY REJUVENATION. Rejuvena-

tion is normally referred to when it becomes possible to eliminate or at least reduce some signs of human body ageing. However, this article will not dwell upon this, but rather upon the possibility of systematic rejuve- nation of an old human body, that is, the ability to restore the structure and functions of all organs and systems of the old human body to the level of its state at the young age. Since yet no one has managed to provide a real systematic rejuvenation of the old human body to its state at the young age yet, the question arises: Is there a real possibility to rejuvenate the old human body to its state at the young age?


To answer this question properly, we first need to answer the first two questions raised in the beginning of this article.


Now there is no doubt, that only the process that is opposed and internally contradictory to the process enabling its ageing can reju- venate the old human body. In addition, since physiological ageing is performed by biocoag- ulation process (cyto-histo-hemocoagulation), opposed to which is the process of bioregener- ation (cyto-histo-hemoregeneration), this fact gives grounds to assert that it is the process of bioregeneration that is a real process likely to be able to achieve systematic re- juvenation of the old human body to its state at the young age.


Such ability of bioregeneration also shows that at the first stage of lifespan development, this process due to genetically determined preva- lence over biocoagulation process ensures hu- man body growth and its young age.

Since the development of bioregeneration pro- cess is based on regenerative-normotrophic mechanism, this fact has provided grounds to justify regenerative-normotrophic theory of systematic rejuvenation of the human body [8, 9, 10]. It appeared that its essence might also be represented in the form of the following framework.


Regenerative-normotrophic theory of human body rejuvenation (framework)


Direct cause of the systematic rejuvenation of the human body is the achievement of con- siderable and rather continuous prevalence of bioregeneration activity process over biocoag- ulation activity process at the old age.


Development conditions are various factors of internal and external media able to have no- ticeable effect on the result of this process.


Development mechanism is a regener- ative–normotrophic mechanism. During human body lifespan, it is a mechanism for development of physiological bioregeneration process and «on a part-time basis», it is the only real mechanism of anti-ageing, and in old or senile age, under certain conditions, it can become a mechanism for real systematic rejuvenation of the human body, i.e., it can convert the structure and functions of the old human body into its state at the young age.


Regenerative-normotrophic mechanism de- termines elimination of age-related degener- ative and dystrophic damage to organs, fully restores normal levels of trophism, and leads to sufficient increase in intracellular and cel- lular regeneration. All these processes lead to full restoration of the structure and functions of damaged organs and systems of the human body, which is manifested in the form of its rejuvenation.


Result is full elimination of age-related degen- erative and dystrophic damage, restoration of all mechanisms of trophism, and complete restoration of the structure of organs to their state at the young age.


Outcomes restoration of functions of hu- man body organs and systems, and their adaptive-and-compensatory abilities to their state at the young age.

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Оригінальні дослідження: клінічні науки Research: clinical sciences


Thus, we may provide a clear and unequivocal answer to the first two questions raised at the beginning of this article.


Answer to the first question: real plasmin-de- pendent fundamental physiological process – the process of biological regeneration – continuously functions in the human body, and is able to ensure real systematic rejuve- nation of the old human body, i.e. to restore the structure and functions of all organs and systems of the old human body to their state at the young age.


Answer to the second question: Bioregenera- tion is capable to rejuvenating the old human body only under condition that considerable and sufficiently continuous prevalence over biocoagulation process is achieved.


Therefore, a need to answer the third question raised at the beginning of this article remains, namely: How can the desired condition, i.e. prevalence of bioregeneration, particular- ly, genetically determined prevalence, be achieved in old and senile age?


The correct answer to this question can be found only based on the above theory of ba- sic and trans-basic activity levels and process- es of biocoagulation and bioregeneration. This doctrine gives grounds to assume that there are two variants of opportunities that help achieve considerable and sufficiently continu- ous prevalence of bioregeneration process over biocoagulation process in old and senile age.


The first possible variant. It is based on the statement that rejuvenation of the old human body is happens by intensifying trans-basic activity level of bioregeneration. This variant is quite available now. We have found that in old and senile age, it is possible to intensify trans-basic activity level of bioregeneration in order to slow down ageing process and en- sure rejuvenation of the old human body with the help of finished preparation of plasmin and activators of endogenous formation of plasmin [8. 10]. We have determined this based on experiments on animals.


By researching old white rats of both sexes aged over 30 months, we have found that all experimental animals experienced changes proving significant systematic rejuvenation of their body after the application of the course

of both plasmin and plasmingenesis activa- tor – streptokinase. The most convincing of these changes is restoration of reproductive function in old animals.


We received two invention patents for these rejuvenation methods, particularly, patent for the method of human body rejuvenation with the use of streptokinase [7].


Results of these investigations testify: first, truthfulness of all three aforementioned ge- rontological theories – lifespan development, physiological ageing of the human body and its systematic rejuvenation; second, the fact that bioregeneration process is the one real fundamental physiological process under cer- tain conditions capable of causing real sys- tematic rejuvenation of old human body to its state at a young age.


However, despite positive results, we should admit that only by intensifying trans-basic ac- tivity level of bioregeneration process, it might not be possible to achieve lasting rejuvena- tion of the old human body for the following reasons. Intensification of trans-basic activity level of bioregeneration process using plas- minogenesis activators is a «substitution ther- apy» in its essence, which requires continu- ous injection of the medication. In this case, continuous injection of the necessary drug is very dangerous for at least three reasons: first, because there exists a threat of bleeding complications; second, because there exists a threat of allergic complications, including pos- sible development of anaphylactic shock, and; third, due to the threat of aggravation of var- ious chronic bacterial, viral or fungal inflam- mation processes. [8, 10].


The second possible variant. It is based on the statement that old human body rejuvena- tion is achieved via change of basic activity level of bioregeneration process, and there- fore, in order to achieve it, certain manipula- tions with genomes are necessary. However, presently, it is not yet known, which manip- ulations with genomes to perform in order to rejuvenate the old human body. Therefore, the following assumptions can be made.


Literature has data showing that the human or animal body is a very complex biological sys- tem with program management located in the genome. The point is, that all genetic programs

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Оригінальні дослідження: клінічні науки Research: clinical sciences


are «written» at two levels – molecular (about 3%) and quantum (over 97%) [1, 2]. In this case, in order to implement the genetic pro- gram of lifespan development in the human body, a reading method should exist, since otherwise it is unlikely to be implemented.


If this is true, then there must be a principal opportunity to transfer readout method (or readout «device») from one place of the pro- gram to another, for example, from the 70th year back to the 10th or any other year of hu- man body growth, i.e. its transfer to the place in the program where it determines the prev- alence of bioregeneration process over bio- coagulation process. This would lead to real rejuvenation of the human body, and later the body would pass all subsequent stages of its development, starting from the age to which the process was reverted.


Thus, by implementing this rejuvenation method, it would not need to develop in the reverse direction. Moreover, if the readout de- vice of lifespan development program could be transferred not once, but multiple times, such body being able to start its development from the young age repeatedly, could live hundreds of years.


Although nowadays, such rejuvenation meth- od of the human body is more like a fanta- sy, the likelihood of its implementation is high enough. My optimism is based on the enor- mous scientific achievements with regard to creation of man-made systems with program management, where the readout device for their programs is easily transferrable from one place to another, even using remote control. Quite recently, just a few decades ago, such a possibility was also considered a fantasy.


However, it should be noted that the program support of biological systems is obviously much more complicated than the program support of even the most complex man-made systems, and method of their programs read- out may differ significantly from the method of man-made programs readout, thus it might not be worth expecting a quick solution for this problem.


Nevertheless, there are sufficient grounds for geneticists, obviously in cooperation with spe- cialists in information technologies, to start a thorough study of genetic programs imple-

mentation methods, since investigation of this issue would make it possible to create an ef- fective and safe method of real systematic rejuvenation of the old human body to its state at the young age. As far as funding of such researches is concerned, many well-off people would certainly be interested in provid- ing sufficient funds for implementation of such researches.


Conclusions

  1. The discovery of thrombin-plasmin sys- tem (TPS) and two processes performed by its subsystems being fundamentally opposed and internally contradictory physiological pro- cesses – biological coagulology (cyto-his- to-hemocoagulation) and biological regener- ation (cyto-histo-hemoregeneration) has lead to drastic changes of gerontology opportunities, since it has been found that using these two processes, TPS implements genetic program of lifespan development of the human body.


  2. It has been established, that at the first stage of lifespan development, the basic ac- tivity level of bioregeneration process en- sures growth of the human body due to its genetically determined prevalence over basic activity level of biocoagulation process.


  3. It has been determined that in old and se- nile age, basic activity level of biocoagula- tion process plays the role of physiological ageing process of the human body.


  4. Basic activity level of bioregeneration process during all stages of lifespan devel- opment constantly counteracts the process of biocoagulation (and thus, the process of age- ing); therefore, it is the only real process of anti-ageing.


  5. Under certain conditions (in the event of its prevalence over the biocoagulation pro- cess) and in old and senile age, the process of bioregeneration is capable of complet- ing real systemic rejuvenation of the old hu- man body, and the desired conditions can be achieved both by increasing trans-basic activ- ity of this process (which may be done even nowadays), and by changing the correlation between basic activity levels of biocoagulation and bioregeneration towards the prevalence of the latter, which, obviously is generally pos- sible. However, this method is not available in practice yet.

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Оригінальні дослідження: клінічні науки Research: clinical sciences


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Cтаття надійшла 17.09.2016


Після допрацювання 12.10.2016


Прийнята до друку 16.11.2016